English Version

Academician Marcus Solomon



  Biography and general data
  Research activity in the field of mathematical analysis and related areas
  The impact of this activity
  Research activity in the field of mathematical linguistics, poetics, semiotics, theoretical computer science and application of mathematics to natural and social sciences
  The impact of this activity
  Reviews of some of his books and articles
  Other opinions
  Quotations and presentations in dictionaries and encyclopedias of mathematics, cybernetics, computer science, linguistics, social sciences, aesthetics, literature, theater and in universal encyclopedias
  Invited author in encyclopedias and handbooks of computer science, linguistics and semiotics
  Member of the editorial board or similar organisms of journals in the field of mathematics, computer science, linguistics, poetics, and semiotics
  Invited speaker at some international scientific meetings
  Invited professor and/or researcher
  Invited lectures
  Interest for the Romanian mathematical heritage
  Stimulating the first steps in research
  Prizes and other signs of distinction
  Other aspects

  Books authored or co-authored
  Books and special issues coordinated, edited, prefaced or postfaced
  Research articles
  Other articles

Biography and General Data

Born 1 March 1925, Bacau, Romania;

mother Sima, father Alter (both taylors).

The merits of his father were reconfirmed in the critical period of the year 1941 by: "Ministerul de Razboi: Titlu de veteran de razboi se atribuie soldatului Alter Marcus pentru participare la razboaiele de independenta si de intregire. Emis de Ministerul de Razboi, (ss)general... Nr.214 din 4 sept. 1941".

Elementary school and high school in Bacau, Romania. First classified at "Bacalaureat" (school-leaving examination) 1944. Faculty of Science, Mathematics, University of Bucuresti, Romania 1945-1949, Diploma of Merit;

Assistant professor 1950, Lecturer 1955; Associate Professor 1964, Professor 1966, Professor Emeritus 1991 Faculty of Mathematics, University of Bucuresti, Romania.

PhD in Mathematics 1956 (Monotonous functions of two variables), State Doctor in Sciences 1968, University of Bucuresti, Romania, Corresponding Member of Romanian Academy, April 1993; Full Member of the Romanian Academy (Academician), December 2001.

Research and teaching in the fields of mathematical analysis, theoretical computer science, measure theory, general topology, linguistics, history and philosophy of mathematics, poetics, semiotics, applications of mathematics to natural and social sciences.

Research Activity in the Field of Mathematical Analysis and Related Areas

Most results are concerned with some counter-intuitive phenomena in Real Analysis, in the tradition of D.Pompeiu, S.Stoilow, M.Nicolescu and A.Froda, of French and Italian school of Real Analysis and of the Polish school of Set Theory and Topology.

Marcus published in this field about one hundred articles, in various well-known periodicals from Europe, North America, and Asia. Here are some of them: Proc.Amer.Math.Soc., Trans.Amer.Math.Soc., Math Annalen, Math.Zeitschrift, Annales Sci.Ecole Normale Sup., Canadian Math.Journal, Journal of Math.Soc. of Japan, Monatshefte fur Math., Acta Sci.Math, Revue Roum. Math., Acta Math.Acad.Sci.Hungaricae, Rend.Circolo Mat.Palermo, C.R.Acad.Sci.Paris, Canadian Math.Bull., Bull.Calcutta Math.Soc., Doklady Akad.Nauk, Computer&Math. with Appl., Colloq.Math.

Topics investigated: the pathology of functions (belonging to the preliminaries of what is now called the fractal geometry of Benoit Mandelbrot); the analogy and the difference between measure and category (for instance, the study of the descriptive analogue of approximative limit, continuity and derivative, of Lusin's property N and of Banach's properties T1 and T2); the topological aspect of the continuous functions of two variables, pointing out the structure of the level sets, some aspects related to connectedness and the analogue in two dimensions of the properties T1 and T2 of Banach; the determining and the stationary sets of some classes of real functions, such as various types of derivatives and of Darboux functions; various representations of arbitrary functions by means of functions with Darboux property, in some spaces devoid of topology; the use of sets of distances as a uniform procedure in the study of various classes of functions defined by inequalities (convex, subadditive, internal); the validity of the Denjoy property for the approximate derivative; the differential structure of functions having a dense set of points of discontinuity; the existence of Hamel bases which are complementary analytics (in the sense of Lusin-Souslin) implies the existence of a projection of a complementary analytic set which is not Lebesgue measurable; answer to a problem raised by Borel, concerning the decomposition of the real line in homogeneous sets; answer to a problem raised by Hausdorff, concerning the discontinuities of a symmetrically continuous function; locally symmetric sets with empty interior and locally antisymmetric sets have the same measure-theoretic structure and the same Baire category structure; conditions for the Darboux property of atomic measures, correlated to conditions for the Darboux property of a series with positive terms; the role of the sets of first Baire category in diophantic approximations; a topological argument for the commutativity of mixed partial derivatives, under the condition of their existence, for any type and any order; the topological variant of S.Kempisty's property of quasicontinuity and some generalizations of continuity; Riemann integrability and Jordan measure in some topological spaces; approach from different directions of the structure of arbitrary functions. Some questions raised by H.Steinhaus and S.Ruziewicz concerning symmetry of sets were answered. Some of the articles were presented for publication by A.N.Kolmogorov, P.Montel, M.Nicolescu, M.Picone, W.Sierpinski.

The Impact of the Activity in the Field of Mathematical Analysis and Related Areas

The articles in this field have benefited of more than thousand quotations, by about 300 authors (including most of the representative names in Real Analysis) in about 70 journals and several tens of monographs.Among those who quoted Marcus are P.Erdos, J.Aczel, C.R.Banerjee, R.P.Boas Jr., J.B. Brown, A.M.Bruckner, P.S.Bullen, L.Carleson, J.Ceder, W.W.Comfort, M.J.Evans, J.Foran, K.M.Garg, Richard G.Gibson, C.Goffman, S.Golab, T.H.Hildebrandt, S.Kaplan, Marek Kuczma, M.Laczkovich, A.Lowater, D.Maharam, C.J.Neugebauer, M.Nicolescu, O.Ore, G.Piranian, D.Preiss, D.N.Sarkhel, A.Schinzel, Z.Semadeni, S.Stoilow, B.Thomson, D.H.Tucker, D.Waterman, C.E.Weil, W.Wilczinski, L.Zajicek, I.Baggs, I.N.Baker, M.Balcerzak, J.Blazek, J.Borsik, J.M.Bownds, S.Buzeteanu, C.Calude, L.Cesari, S.D.Chatterji, A.Csaszar, K.Ciesielski, Z.Daroczi, R.G.Darst, E.Deak, N.Dinculeanu, J.Dobos, P.Dugac, V.Ene, H.Fast, F.M.Filipczak, R.J.Fleissner, G.Fodor, C.Foias, R.Ger, A.J.Goldman, Z.Grande, M.Iosifescu, G.Istrate, J.Jaskula, K.G.Johnson, K.K.Kellum, R.Keston, P.Kostyrko, Marcin Kuczma, M.Kulbacka, T.Kuusalo, B.K.Lahiri, L.Larson, E.Lazarow, A.Lenard, J.Leonard, J.S.Lipinski, W.Liu, J.Lukes, A.Maliszewski, J.Maly, N.C.Manna, N.S.F.Martin, A.Mate, J.C.Mauldon, H.B.Maynard, A.Medvedev, M.R.Mehdi, L.Misik, D.Mitrinovic, J.C.Morgan II, L.Moser, S.N.Mukhopadhyay, T.Natkaniek, T.Neubrunn, A.Neubrunnova, A.Nica, T.Nishiura, V.Nistor, O.Njastad, T.Noiri, O.Oliveri, R.J.O'Malley, W.Orwat, R.J.Pawlak, G.Paun, T.L.Pearson, I.I.Pesin, G.Petruska, B.Pettineo, Z.Piotrowski, H.H.Pu, H.W.Pu, F.Radulescu, Dave Renfro, T.Salat, J.Smital, B.Szkopinska, M.Szyszkowski, K.B.Taylor, I.I.Trochimchuk, P.Van Emde Boas, D.E.Varberg, P.Ver Eecke, D.Vuza, A.Wayne Roberts, M.Weiss, A.Zaharescu, T.Zamfirescu, R.E.Zink, A.A.Zykov.

Almost each issue of the journal Real Analysis Exchange (the specialized journal in the field) contains some references to his papers. Many articles have as their point of departure some of the concepts he has introduced, of the problems he has raised or of the results he has obtained. Some of them, such as the qualitative continuity, the qualitative derivative, the determining sets and the stationary sets are often used with no reference. Tens of authors, among which P.Erdos and one of the contemporary leaders in Real Analysis, A.Bruckner, mention his name in the title of some of their articles. Here are a few of the journals where Marcus was quoted for his work in Real Analysis: Acta Math.Acad.Sci.Hung., Acta.Sci.Math., Aequationes Math., Boll.Unione Mat.Italiana, Canad.Math.Bull., Colloq.Math., Duke Math.J., Fundam.Math., Illinois J.Math., Indagationes Math.Israel J.Math., Jahresb.Deutches Math.Ver., J.Math.Analysis and Appl., J.Math.Physics, J.Optimization Theory and Appl., Math.Zeitschrift, Memoirs Amer.Math.Soc., Michigan Math.Soc., Monatshefte Math., Niew Archief voor Wiskunde, Notices Amer.Math.Soc., Proc.Amer.Math.Soc., Trans.Amer.Math.Soc., Uspehi Mat.Nauk.

One of the most important results in Real Analysis in the last 50 years, asserting that every real function of the second Baire class is the limit of a sequence of derivatives (D.Preiss), was proved by using a theorem of Marcus. Several monographs and treatises in the field of real analysis pay attention to Marcus's results.

A privileged position has Marcus in the monograph by A.M.Bruckner "Differentiation of real functions" (Springer, 1978; second ed. Amer.Math.Soc., 1994), where eleven articles by Marcus are quoted, chapter XII being dedicated to Marcus notions of stationary and determining sets. In the second edition (1994), chapter 15 is devoted to Marcus's problem concerning the algebra of derivatives.

Here are examples of other monographs where significant reference is made to S.M.'s results. Andrew M.Bruckner, Judith B.Bruckner, Brian Thomson: Real analysis. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 1997 (p.205, reference to Pompeiu derivatives). Lenart Carleson: Selected problems on exceptional sets. D.Van Nostrand Comp.Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1967. 8 references. Krishna Murari Garg: A theory of differentiation. Canad.Math.Soc. Series of monographs and advanced texts, vol.24, Wiley Interscience, 1998. Marek Kuczma: Functional equations in a single variable. Monografiie Mat.46, Polish Scientific Publishers, Warszawa, 1968. Marek Kuczma: An introduction to the theory of functional equations and inequalities. Polish Scientific Publishers, Warszawa, 1985.(ref. at pp.210, 226, 255, 257, 288, 291, 296, 297, 299, 507, 512 to five papers of S.M., one with Erdos). A.Lowater: Boundary behavior of analytic functions (Russian version,VINITI, Moscow, 1973). Jaroslav Lukes, Jan Maly, Ludek Zajicek: Fine topology methods in real analysis and potential theory. Springer, Berlin et al, 1986 (ref. to two papers by S.M., one about qualitative derivative, the other about Pompeiu derivative). A.Medvedev: Ocerki istorii teorii funkcii deistvitelnogo peremenogo. Nauka, Moskva, 1975. Dragoslav Mitrinovic: Matematiki metodi u fiziki i tehniki. Preduzece Grad.Kniga, Beogradu, 1965. Dragoslav Mitrinovic: Analytic inequalities. Springer, Berlin et al, 1970. John C.Morgan, II: Point set theory. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York and Basel, 1989 (10 references to 4 articles, theorems from Math. Nachrichten about Hamel bases). Miron Nicolescu: Analiza matematica, vol.1 (1957), vol.2 (1958), vol.3 (1960). Ed.Tehnica, Bucuresti (ref in vol.1, p.6, vol.II, pp.4, 66, 126, 257, 273, 344, 350, 424, 425, 521, some of them to results that were not published elsewhere, vol.III, pp.4, 34.). Oystein Ore: Theory of graphs. Amer.Math.Soc., Colloquium Publ. 38, 1962. Zbigniew Semadeni: Banach spaces of continuous functions, I.Polish Scientific Publishers, Warszawa, 1971. Brian S.Thomson: Real functions. Springer, Berlin et al., 1980 (p.21, ref to qualitative limit, continuity and derivative) ref to 4 articles by S.M. Brian S.Thomson: Symmetric properties of real functions. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York et al, 1994 (ref. in ten places to 7 articles). Dan H.Tucker - Hugh B.Maynard, eds.: Vector and operator valued measures. Academic Press, New York, 1973. Wayne Roberts - Dale E.Varberg: Convex functions, No.57 in the series Pure and Applied Math.(eds. P.A.Smith, S.Eilenberg). Academic Press, New York, 1973. A.Zykov: Teorija konecnych grafov, I. Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1969.

Research Activity in the Field of Mathematical Linguistics, Poetics, Semiotics, Theoretical Computer Science and Aplications of Mathematics to Natural and Social Sciences

Marcus published in this field 38 books (in Romanian, English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian, Czech, Hungarian, Greek, Serbo-Croatian) and more than 300 articles, having as their topics: the analytical models of languages, the mathematical modeling of some phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic categories (mainly the phoneme, the grammatical case, the grammatical gender, the part of speech, the syntactic dependency, subordination and projectivity, textual cohesion, textual coherence, the morphological homonymy), analogies and differences between natural and programming languages, the topological model of the poetic language and the algebraic model of scientific language, the mathematical modeling of strategy in theatrical plays, new types of generative mechanisms (mainly the contextual grammars), mathematical models in folklore, the generative mechanisms of fairy tales, a mathematical-linguistic approach to molecular genetics, some graph-theoretic models and generative mechanisms of isoprenoid structures in organic chemistry, the interplay of innate and acquired in some mathematical (topological) models of learning processes, mathematical-linguistic models in the field of visual arts, the semiotics of medical diagnosis, the metaphors and the metonymies of the mathematical language, the metaphors in the artificial component of the scientific language, the recursive properties of Sudan's function, man-computer communication, diplomatic communication, a mathematical approach to the study of human needs, a new perspective in the study of paradox (from pathology to normality), an interdisciplinary representation of human communication, from the aboutness to the self-referential approach, the semiotic perspective in the study of social indicators, the dialogue faced with simulation, a calculus of influences and of interactions related to the global trends in the world, the theatrical metaphors in the contemporary science, the social and cultural relevance of the mathematical, physical and psychological time, the interplay of individual and global crises, the graph-theoretic approach to human communication, formal grammars suggested by combinatorial problems (Langford strings and Gauss codes), the history of linguistic oppositions, symbols in a multidimensional space, convergence of the artistic and scientific aspects in visual semiotics, the logical and semiotic status of the canonic formula of myth, the self-referential trend in human communication, metaphor as didactorship, genuine restrictions in mental representations.

He has also edited about twelve collective books, in most cases as a result of the school of research he succeeded to form along the years.

In the last years, S.M. developed the idea to transfer some notions and results from the field of infinite words into the field of formal languages and conversely. Typical in this respect is his joint paper with L.Ilie and I.Petre about periodic and Sturmian languages.

The Impact of the Activity in the Field of Linguistics, Poetics, Semiotics, Theoretical Computer Science and Aplications of Mathematics to Natural and Social Sciences

His works in these fields have benefited of several thousands quotations, by more than seven hundreds of authors, among which mathematicians, such as Garret Birkhoff, M.P.Schutzenberger, Rene Thom and J. Lambek, linguists such as Roman Jakobson, Andre Martinet, Luigi Rosiello, V.V.Ivanov, I.A.Melcuk and Carlo Tagliavini, computer scientists such as A.Salomaa, G.Rozenberg, A.Ehrenfeucht, M.Arbib and J.Berstel, philosophers such as Paul Ricoeur and Mario Bunge, psychologists such as E.Berlyne, semioticians such as A.J.Greimas, Umberto Eco, Thomas A.Sebeok, Pierre Maranda and Ju.M.Lotman, literary researchers such as Cesare Segre, N.E.Enkvist, Maria Corti, Siegfried J.Schmidt and the Group M (Liege) in more than 200 journals and about 700 books.

To refer only to the books where he is quoted, let us mention the books of automata theory by M.Arbib, R.J.Nelson, A.Salomaa, of formal languages by M.Harrison, G.Rozenberg, G.Paun, A.Salomaa, the books of mathematical and computational linguistics by K.B.Bektaev, A.Blikle, J.P.Benzecri, B.Brainerd, T.I.Deserieva, J.I.Gindin, J.Horecky, A.V.Gladkii - I.A. Melcuk, P.Goujon, A.Juilland, W.H.Kortlandt, I.G.Mazzaroli, J.Mistrik, V.A.Moskovic, F.Papp, R.G.Piotrovski, J.Pogonovski, J.Petofi, G.Rondeau, I.I.Revzin, M.Semeniuk-Polkowska, S.Serrano, A.Ludskanov, W.Klein, W.A.Sedelow, E.Hajicova, the books of linguistics by Manuel Alvar, J.M.Anderson - C.J.Ewen, Mario Alinei, G.Babiniotis, W.P.Alston, G.Berruto, J.Banczerowski, J.Pogonowski - T.Zgolka, G.A.Bogatova, T.V.Civian, F.Danes, Jean Dubois, Claude Dubois, A.P.Evdosenko, H.Fricke, E.L.Ginzburg, M.Galmiche - G.Kleiber - O.Dahl - M.Gross, H.Frei, V.M.Grigorjan, R.Jakobson, A.Jakob, W.Klein, A.Martinet, R.H.Robbins, O. Szemerenyi, H.Schnelle, E.Zwirner, K.H.Reusch, D.Navarro, J.Panevova, L.Benesova - P.Sgall, C.Rohrer, Giulio C.Lepschy, H.Schogt, V.A.Serebrenikov, S.K.Saumjan, H.Thun, J.Petofi, J.F.Phelizon, G.Massariello, L.I.Luht, K.Mullner, H.Krenn, I.G. Komlev, B.A.Uspenskii, E.Vasiliu, A.Varvarro, W.Welte, W. Wildgen, R.Windisch; the books of semiotics by M.Arrive - J.C.Coquet, H.Broms - R. Kaufmann, J.Deely - B.Willians - F.E.Kruse, F.Edeline - J.M.Klinkenberg - P.Minguet, Achim Eschbach, M.Krampen, W.A.Koch, J.M.Lotman, J.J.Nattiez, Winfried Noth, Th.A.Sebeok, the books of logic by W.Buszkowski - W.Marciszewski - J.Van Benthem, Tadeusz Batog. E.Coumet - O.Ducrot - J.Gattegno, Anton Dumitriu, H.G.Heringer, of mathematical logic (C.Calude), of psychology (M.Nowakowska), of philosophy of science (C.F.Bruter, M.Bunge), of philosophy (P.Ricoeur), of aesthetics and theory of literature (M.Calinescu, S.Cioculescu, M.Corti, C.Cherry, L.Dolezel, St.A.Doinas, N.E.Enkvist, V.V.Ivanov, W.A.Koch, N.Manolescu, P.Maranda, A.Marino, J.J.Nattiez, V.Nemoianu, B.Nicolescu, W.Noth, T.Pavel, I.E.Petrescu, S.J.Schmidt, V.Voigt, P.Zumthor), of probability (O.Onicescu), of the theory of theater (Marvin Carlson, J.Alter, K.Elam, G.Girard - R.Ouellet - C.Rigault, A.Helbo, A.A.Karjagin, T.Kowzan, W. Keller, D.Lafon, M.Sito Alba, Mihai Dinu, I.Slawinska, Patrice Pavis, Manfred Pfister, Herta Schmid, A.Ubersfeld, Aloysius Van Kesteren), of global problems of the humanity (K.Mushakoji, J.Galtung, A.Judge).

Here is a selection of authors who quoted in their articles his results in the field of languages: mathematicians and computer scientists such as M.S.Balan, T.Balanescu, D.B.Benson, F.Bernardini, J.Berstel, P.Boullier, M.S.Burgin, E.S.Burgina, C.Calude, R.Ceterchi, M.Cavalliere, G.Ciobanu, A.M.Cohen, J.Dassow, M.Davidson, L.P.Dinu, Pal Domosi, M.Drasil, A.Ehrenfeucht, Henning Fernau, S.Fitijalov, M.Fliess, Rudolf Freund, J.Friant, M.Gheorghe, M.Gontineac, R.Gramatovici, A.Gulliver, F.Ipate, P.Jancar, T.Jurdzinski, H.Jurgensen, I.M.Havel, T.Hayashi, Tom Head, P.Helen Chandra, T.Holan, M.Holcombe, Markus Holzer, L.Ilie, S.Istrail, M.Ito, M.Kappes, L.Kari, H.Karlgren, Takumi Kasai, S.N.Krishna, K.Krithivasan, V.Kubon, M.Kudlek, J.Kunze, K.Lakshmanan, A.Lentin, M.Madhu, V.Manca, Fl.Manea, M.Margenstern, A.Mateescu, H.J.Maurer, B.H.Mayoh, I.G.Mazzaroli, V.Mitrana, S.Mizutani, F.Mraz, Madhu Mutyam, R.Nicolescu, Sato Mutsumi, Miroslav Novotny, Alexander Okhotin, Friedrich Otto, A.Pasini, G. Paun, P.Petrucci, M.Platek, M.Prochazka, R.Rama, Y.Rogozhin, G.Rozenberg, A.Rozenfeld, A.Salomaa, Kai Salomaa, Z.Saloni, M.P.Schutzenberger, A.Siddhartha Reddy, Giuseppe Scollo, T.A.Smitha, K.G.Subramanian, U.Speidel, Ludwig Staiger, Patrick Suppes, Doina Tatar, T.G.Thomas, M.R.Titchener, I.Tomescu, B.Vauqois, G.Veillon, S.Verlan, S.Vicolov, J.Vogel, E.Woronowicz, Sheng Yu, I.Zednik, B.Zelinka, F.Zitek, A.A.Zykov, linguists such as Gemma Bel Enguix, I.Bellert, F.Danes, J.P.Descles, M.Dolores Jimenez Lopez, O.Ducrot, C.Fuchs, B.Havranek, D.G.Hays, G.Kleiber, V.V.Ivanov, H.H.Lieb, G.F.Meier, A.G.Oettinger, E.V.Paduceva, Ferenc Papp, Bernard Pottier, I.I.Revzin, A.Rey, C.Rohrer, H.Schnelle, D.Srinivasan, Anssi Yli-Jyra, logicians and philosophers such as Y.Bar-Hillel, O.Berka, K.Berka, L.Kalmar, B.Brodda, J.Hintikka, semioticians such as Umberto Eco, A.J.Greimas, S.Ji, M.Krampen, E.W.Landowski, D.Lidov, W.Noth, I.Osolsobe, J.Petitot, S.Petrilli, A.Ponzio, Roland Posner, L.Santaella, V.N.Toporov.

Most Romanian linguists and most Romanian literary researchers in the last decades made at least once reference to Marcus writings. He was quoted by Ulf Grenander in his book "Regular structures; Lectures in Pattern Theory", vol.III (Springer 1981, p.41-42, 557), by Garret Birkhoff in "Mathematics and Psychology" (SIAM Review, Oct.1969,vol.11, nr.4, p.429-469) and by Rene Thom in "Stabilite Structurelle et Morphogenese" (W.A.Benjamin, Reading, Mass 1972, p.348).

The contextual grammars, introduced by Marcus in 1968, are the object of a large number of investigations, extensions and applications to both formal languages and natural languages, as it can be seen from the publication of the monograph of synthesis by Gh.Paun: "Marcus Contextual Grammars", Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, 1997, 367 pp. and from the two chapters (80 pages) devoted to them in the second volume of the Handbook of Formal Languages, eds.G.Rozenberg, A.Salomaa, Springer Verlag, Berlin, New York, 1997.

Typical for the impact of Marcus's work in linguistics are many monographs where one or several sections are devoted to his contributions; here are three of them: F.H.H.Kortlandt, "Modelling the Phoneme", Mouton, The Hague, 1972 (section 3.8 is entitled: Marcus definition of the phoneme); W.Andries van Helden: "Case and Gender-Concept Formation Between Morphology and Syntax" (Rodopi, Amsterdam-Atlanta, Georgia, 1993, two volumes), where 16 sections have in their title Marcus's name; Greville G.Corbett: "Gender", Cambridge Univ.Press, Cambridge, 1995, where large place is devoted to Marcus model of grammatical gender, introduced with the following appreciation: "A major alternative approach is that of Marcus" (op.cit., p.147).

All the above facts as well as those pointed out in the next sections acknowledge that Marcus is recognized as one of the initiators of Mathematical Linguistics and of Mathematical Poetics. Let us add that recently Marcus' contextual grammars compete, by some of their extensions, with the most known types of generative grammars, in respect to their relevance in modeling natural languages in Computational Linguistics (see his joint contribution with Martin-Vide and G.Paun in the journal "Computational Linguistics", vol.24, 1998, no.2).

In 2004, S.M. introduced and studied the notion of a quasiperiodic infinite word, previously considered only for finite words.His results were further developed by F.Leve, G.Richomme and T.Monteil.

Reviews and comments of some of his books and articles

"Gramatici si automate finite", Editura Academiei, Bucuresti, 1964.

Emanuel Vasiliu, "Foundations of Language 2", (1966, no.3, p.291-294): This book makes clear the rapports between different formal devices describing natural and artificial languages; a number of equivalences are stated by theorems, and a number of interesting analogies are suggested. In addition, the power of various mathematical devices is evaluated.In this way, the field of linguistic significance of various mathematical theories is considerably enlarged. S.Marcus's book is a valuable contribution to the theory of language.

C.Calude, Gh.Paun, G.Rozenberg, "Contagious creativity", (Fundamenta Informaticae 64, 2005, 1/4, p.vii): His book "Grammars and Finite Automata" (in Romanian) was one of the first books on formal languages and automata theory.

Florentin Ipate, Tudor Balanescu, "Refinement in finite state Machine testing", (Fundamenta Informaticae 64, 2005, 1/4, p.191): In a pioneering monograph on regular languages and finite automata ("Gramatici si automate finite", Ed.Academiei, Bucuresti, 1964), Solomon Marcus points out the modelling power of these mathematically simple means, suggesting a wide variety of applications spread across linguistics, mathematics, computer science, etc. It has been proven that Marcus intuition was correct, during the last decades the finite state machines research taking on a new significance in the light of software requirements for specification and verification of some special classes of systems, like communication protocols and control systems.

Florentin Ipate, Mike Holcombe, "Complete testing from a stream X-machine specification", (Fundamenta Informaticae 64, 2005, 1/4, p.205-206): In an early monograph on regular languages and finite state machines ("Gramatici si automate finite", Ed.Academiei, Bucuresti, 1964), Solomon Marcus points out the huge modelling power of these mathematical tools, suggesting a wide variety of applications spread across linguistics, mathematics, computer science, etc. Their subsequent evolution has confirmed Marcus's intuition, over the last decades the finite state machine research having been strengthened by high profile domains such as natural language processing (Marcus,S., Paun,Gh., Martin-Vide,C.: "Contextual grammars as generative models of natural languages", Computational Linguistics, 24(2), 1998, 245-274) and [...].

Sheng Yu, "State complexity: Recent results and open problems", (Fundamenta Informaticae 64, 2005, 1/4, p.471): Here, we would like to mention that Solomon Marcus published one of the earliest books, perhaps the earliest book, on finite automata, in 1964 ("Grammars and finite automata", in Romanian, Ed.Academiei, Bucuresti). He is certainly one of the pioneers of automata theory.

"Introduction mathematique a la linguistique structurale", Dunod, Paris, 1967.

Yehosua Bar-Hillel (Computing Reviews, vol.9, 1968, no.4, p.189): ... any structural linguist who will be able to work his way through it should definitely profit.

Maurice Gross (Science-Progres-La Nature, no.3399, 1968, Paris, p.280): Un excellent ouvrage destine aux linguistes et aux mathematiciens certes, mais surtout a ceux qui s'interessent aux problemes du traitement automatique de l'information linguistique, et l'on sait combien ce probleme est a l'ordre du jour.

Maurice Gross "L'Age de la Science", no.2, avril-jouin 1968, Paris, p.144: Sa preoccupation majeure est d'aboutir a des classifications precises, d'ou l'emploi et la justification du formalisme. L'un des principaux apports de l'auteur consiste a formaliser de maniere rigoureuse la notion de distribution [...] Marcus a puise dans un arsenal mathematique preexistant a la linguistique les notions qui lui ont semble interessantes, alors que les travaux de Chomsky et Schutzenberger, par exemple, procedent de la demarche inverse.

L.Nebesky - S.Machova (The Prague Bulletin of Mathematical Linguistics 9, 1968, p.74-75): The Paris Publishing House Dunod began in 1967 to publish monographs in mathematical linguistics. The first volume edited by this house was the work of an outstanding Romanian mathematician, Solomon Marcus. This work provides one field of mathematical linguistics, i.e., analytical models of language. This theory initiated by O.S.Kulagina, Marcus enriched by a number of his genuine papers. The original ideas can be found especially in the chapters 1, 2, 5, 6, 7.

Michel Janot (La Linguistique 1969, no.2, p.155-158): L'interet majeur de l'ouvrage reside, en effet, dans la comparaison et le rapprochement des differentes theories linguistiques; rapprochant opposition et distribution, Marcus formalise toute procedure heuristique; [...] un autre aspect enrichissant de la tentative de Marcus reside dans le fait que la formalisation d'une theorie a pour consequence de mettre en evidence toutes formes d'apriori et toute etude intuitive. C'est ainsi que formalisant le classement des oppositions selon le schema propose par Troubetzkoi, Marcus demontre que celui-ci a etudie intuitivement ce qu'il y avait de plus interessant parmi les oppositions, a savoir les oppositions equipollentes, car la propriete d'une opposition d'etre equippolente est un invariant de la relation de proportionalite.

I.I.Revzin (Lingua 27, 1974, p.277-282): Es ist wirklich lohnt, das Buch von Marcus zu lesen. Obwohl der, Rezensent darauf verziehtet hat, jedes Kapitel zu besprechen, glaubt er dem Leser wenigstenseinige Probleme vorfuhren zu mussen, damit es klar sei, wie der Mathematiker dem Linguisten zur Hand greift. Der Rezensent wahlt zu diesen Zweck das Kapitel II. Es ist, wie gesagt, der Phonemtheorie gewidmet und scheint dem Rezensenten das Bedeutendste zu sein - uns dies aus zweierlei Grunden. Erstens weil die Phonologie ein Gebiet ist, wo die formellen Vorstellungen am meisten gediehen sind und zweitens weil die in der Phonologie ausgearbeiteten Methoden auf andere Ebenen der Sprachbeschreibung ausgedehnt werden konnen.

Ferenc Kiefer (Computational Linguistics 8, 1969, p.99-100): In my view, Marcus's book has - apart from its outstanding pedagogical value - two merits. On the one hand, by formalizing wellknown linguistic notions, one can easily show that different formulations may lead to the same result or that apparently identical contentions, when carefully formalized, may reveal essential divergences. In other words, the careful reader will get a clearer picture about what is common and what is different in the various structuralist schools. In addition, Marcus's work links up with several problems of computational linguistics and must therefore be recommended to computational linguists as well.

"Algebraic Linguistics; Analytical Models", Academic Press, New York and London, 1967.

H.P.Edmundson. (Mathematical Reviews 37, 1969, 1, p.221-222): ...an important contribution to algebraic linguistics.

Ju.A.Sreider (Novye Knigi za Rubejom A, 1968, 6, p.37-40): ...very interesting for all specialists in the field of mathematical linguistics and useful both as textbook and as monograph; its translation in Russian is recommended.(the translation was published in 1970).

Jacob L.Mey (Norvegian Journal of Linguistics, vol.26, 1972, p.111): Formalization [...] can be interpreted in two different ways: (1) illustrative [...] and (2) generative [...]. Certain mathematicians and logicians may feel inspired to dally for a while with linguistic handmaids; surely, these and similar sportive activities can be of importance if they result in the sharpening of linguistic concepts. Good examples of this are found in the works of the Czech mathematicians K.Culik and L.Nebesky and the Romanian S.Marcus (Algebraic Linguistics 1967, Poetica matematica 1970) to name just a few.)

"Introducere in lingvistica matematica", Ed. Stiintifica, Bucuresti,1966.
"Introduzione alla linguistica matematica", Casa editrice Riccardo Patron, Bologna, Italia, 1970.

Carlo Tagliavini (Preface to the book): Fra la piu comprensibili introduzioni alla linguistica matematica e, a mio avisso, una degle migliori, se non addirittura la migliore il volume uscito a Bucarest in seconda edizione nel 1966 scritto dal prof.Solomon Marcus, in collaborazzione con un linguisto (Sorin Stati) e con un ingegnere (Edmond Nicolau).

"Poetica matematica", Editura Academiei, Bucuresti, 1970.

Gr.C.Moisil (Carti Noi, anul XIII, no.6 (156), iunie 1970): Volumul "Poetica matematica" este datorat unui matematician care s-a facut cunoscut lumii stiintifice internationale prin lucrarile sale adanci de matematici pure si prin contributia sa esentiala la constituirea unei stiinte noi: lingvistica matematica [...]. Solomon Marcus, prin noul sau volum publicat de Editura Academiei, fundeaza un nou capitol al lingvisticii matematice, poate chiar al unei noi stiinte [...]. Matematician de factura moderna, autorul n-a scris un volum de poetica cantitativa, ci de poetica structurala.

Matei Calinescu (Romania Literara, no.35, 27 august si no.36, 3 sept 1970): De fapt, oricum ar sta lucrurile, opozitia elaborata de S.M. intre limbajul poetic si limbajul matematic ramane pe deplin convingatoare. Autorul "Poeticii matematice" se apropie si chiar atinge punctul de la care sunt depasite dilemele inevitabile ale cercetatorilor anteriori ai limbajului poetic, vazut ca abatere de la limbajul uzual. Fata de acestia, S.M. face un adevarat salt calitativ.

Nicolae Manolescu (Romania literara, nr.34 (1244), 11 sept. 1970, p.3): [...] prin cuprindere si sistem, cea dintai incercare de a studia cu mijloace matematice limbajul poeziei [...] intreprinde asadar o opera indrazneata de pionierat [...] cartea reprezinta un mare progres in raport cu realizarile a numerosi cercetatori (lingvisti, matematicieni si chiar esteticieni [...]).

Sorin Stati ("Un record dublu: Poetica matematica", Romania libera, anul XXVIII, nr.8086, 22 octombrie 1970, p.2): Cand prezinti cartea unui specialist de talia lui Solomon Marcus, indrumatorul scolii romanesti de lingvistica matematica, nu este cazul sa pui note, sa dai calificative. Si apoi cine stapaneste mai bine decat Solomon Marcus obiectele matematicii, lingvisticii si esteticii literare laolalta? Parcurgerea cartii creeaza convingerea ca directia de cercetare numita "Poetica matematica" are dreptul la existenta, ca edificiul nou trebuie construit pana la capat. Cand va fi gata, Solomon Marcus va avea satisfactia sa constate ca s-a tinut seama de ideile domniei sale si de aceea numele i-a fost trecut pe lista ctitorilor.

Nichita Stanescu (Arges, nr.1 (56), January 1971, p.1) has dedicated to S.M. a piece of poetry: Matematica poetica (lui Solomon Marcus): Unu si cu unu nu fac doi. / Unu si cu unu fac trei / sau patru, sau cinci... / Unu tare si cu unu moale / sau o camila. / Saptesprezece fara unu / fac douazeci si unu, / cinci si cu patru / fac un cal. / Opt fara trei / fac cat vrei, / o mie noua sute / a fost, / doua mii / va sa vie. / Unu poate fi la trecut. / Unu poate fi la viitor. / / Dorm si visez in limba iraniana: / ea are un timp intermediar / intre prezent si viitorul intai, / ea are un timp intermediar / intre prezent si imperfect / si ea mai are si un verb fara nici un timp. / / Exista o gramatica a numerelor / 1 poate fi subiect / dar poate fi si predicat. / 1 poate sa fie pana la soare / dar poate fi si pana / la lamaie, / 1, 2, 3, / o capra, un taur, un turn / capre (cate?) / turnuri (cate?) / tauri (unul). / / Scuip pe 1./ Plang pe 1, / dau cu piciorul in 1. / / -Ai inebunit, imi spune Pitagora. / -N-am inebunit, ii strig. Pamantul / e plat ca o omleta. / / Omul e cel mai vechi animal / si singur in vidul cosmic. / / El nu are doua maini / si doua picioare. Aceasta numaratoare / e un vis, un slogan, / 2 tare nu e totuna cu 2 moale, / 2 lung nu e totuna cu 2 scurt / si aceasta pentru ca de fapt / e totuna - / deci 2 este egal cu una / (una este nevasta lui 1) / / 1 la vocativ / nu este acelasi cu 1 / la imperativ ! / / Matematica s-o fi scriind cu cifre / dar poezia nu se scrie cu cuvinte. / / Cucurigu !

K.Sgallova, P.Sgall (Prague Bulletin of Mathematical Linguistics 16, 1971, p.75-78): It is the first, and therefore a pioneer book on this subject. It is for the first time when one of the foremost mathematicians in this field pays such an attention to the question of poetic language.

Gabriela Melinescu (Luceafarul, nr.16(520), 15 aprilie 1972, p.1, 6): Mi se pare o carte unica prin stralucita ei luciditate [...]. Am extras din carte, pe masura ce am citit-o, dupa cum in urma cu cativa ani de zile Nichita Stanescu a extras din textele poetice ale lui Cantemir, pasaje intregi pe care le publicam separat, ca pe niste poeme de un tip straniu.

Jean-Marie Klinkenberg (Degres, Bruxelles 1973, 1, p.1-12): Le modele le plus puissant jusqu'ici elabore pour rendre compte des particularites du langage poetique, modele qui tient compte des considerations que nous venons de formuler, est sans doute celui du mathematicien roumain S.M., dont l'apport essentiel est d'avoir depasse les stades empirique, experimental et analytique de la poetique, pour la faire passer dans son etape axiomatique grace a une formulation mathematique de l'opposition entre le langage poetique et le langage scientifique. Ces recherches, qui ont ete preparees par une suite d'ouvrages etudiant les structures algebriques du langage (Marcus 1963, 1967) trouvent leur meilleure expression dans l'importante "Poetica matematica".

Virgil Nemoianu (Romania literara, anul VI, nr.15, 12 aprilie 1973, p.5): Nu este chemat autorul acestor randuri, fost membru al Cercului de stilistica de la Bucuresti, sa aprecieze in ce masura se poate vorbi de autentice initiative creatoare, cu ecou international; se poate, totusi, spune ca lucrarile de poetica matematica ale lui Solomon Marcus sau monografia Faulkner a lui Sorin Alexandrescu reprezinta realizari foarte solide, cu o mare doza de inedit, vrednice sa stea in atentia oricarui specialist in materie.

B.Brainerd-H.G.Schogt (Poetics 10, 1974, p.161-173): This book is unique in that, unlike the most well known applications of mathematics to literature-study, he avoids the use of statistics almost entirely. In general, "Poetica matematica" seems to open wide horizons for the linguist who wants to get away from intuitive subjective statements and exchange them for objective, precise scientific reasoning. It is a pleasure to see how Marcus pushed assertions to their final inevitable consequences; instead of compromising and shirking, away before responsibilities.

Adrian Marino (International Journal of Romanian Studies, vol.1, 1978, no.1-2): The study of the poetic language, thanks to Solomon Marcus's volume of Poetica matematica 1970 - translated into world-wide languages - provides with an important contribution by establishing a scientific criterion of differentiation between the scientific style and the literary style based on the relation between homonymy and synonymy.

Marian Popa (Amfiteatru 1970, no.12(60), p.6-7): ... cartea este o sursa infinita de reflectii si sugestii si ea trebuie citita de toti acei critici care au stil, au nevoie de idei si nu de har.

Alexandra Indries (Orizont, anul 21(199), no.11, 1970, p.76-80): Aceasta este o carte de referinta, care nu se epuizeaza printr-un comentariu. Este o lucrare pilduitoare prin eruditie, sensibilitate, fantezie, cutezanta; o carte inspirata.

"Din gandirea matematica romaneasca", Editura stiintifica si enciclopedica, Bucuresti, 1975.

Miron Nicolescu (Preface to the book): Autorul lucrarii [...] este un matematician de un deosebit prestigiu, cunoscut tuturor specialistilor din centrele stiintifice de la noi si din afara, dublat de un lingvist situat la frontiera dintre matematica si lingvistica. [...] Spirit critic, inzestrat cu o mare putere de analiza, dar si de sinteza, profesorul S.M. a fost condus in mod natural la intocmirea lucrarii de mai sus, care constituie o adevarata opera de cercetare. [...] Lectura lucrarii lui S.M. a constituit pentru mine o inalta desfatare, gratie stilului sau cald, direct, simplu, stil de adevarat povestitor, care stie sa conduca cititorul chiar pe drumurile mai dificile ale unor dezvoltari cu caracter tehnic [...]. Prin cartea sa, prima de acest gen scrisa in tara noastra, prof.S.M. aduce un insign serviciu stiintei si culturii romanesti.

Alexandru Ivasiuc (Eseuri, Romania literara, 25 XII 1975, p.5): "Din gandirea matematica romaneasca" nu este o lucrare de istorie a severei discipline in tara noastra, nu este o expunere de biografii si nici o lista de carti si articole de specialitate. Ea este opera unui moralist si, de cand exista lumea moralistilor, s-au etalat tristetile prin portrete [...]. Profesorul Solomon Marcus ii prezinta pe toti acestia in portrete memorabile, ca oameni vii sau ca purtatori de opera. Spatiul nu-mi permite sa citez admirabilele pagini dedicate aparitiilor lui Dan Barbilian la catedra si pasiunii sale care pretindea si unui om venit in sala ca sa se incalzeasca sa stie ce este un grup.

"Semiotica folclorului", Editura Academiei, Bucuresti, 1975.
"La semiotique formelle du folklore", Ed. Academiei, Bucuresti-Editions Klincksieck, Paris, 1978.

Nicolae Constantinescu (Amfiteatru, 1978, nr.6): [...] cei care au venit in contact direct cu cercetarea folcloristica romaneasca au fost impresionati de realizarile noastre [...]. Numele unor cercetatori romani ca Mihai Pop, Ovidiu Barlea, Ion Talos, Solomon Marcus sunt bine cunoscute si pretuite aici in S.U.A. ca si in Europa.

Wladimir Krysinski (The Canadian Journal of Research in Semiotics/Journal Canadien de Semiotique, vol.VIII, 1980-81, numbers): On connait l'importance des travaux de Solomon Marcus qui portent notamment sur le texte litteraire, poetique ou theatral que le semioticien roumain soumet a l'application des modeles mathematiques. La publication en francais de "La Semiotique formelle du folklore", qui est une version amplement revisee de "Semiotica folclorului" (Bucarest, 1975) marque un evenement important. L'ouvrage contient une serie de textes representant bien les acquis et les methodes de l'ecole roumaine de semiotique. L'eventail des travaux est considerable et il va de la Paradigmatique des ballades populaires jusqu'aux Metamorphoses et genealogies mythiques, en passant par la Prosodie et syntaxe dans la poesie populaire et les Mecanismes generatifs du conte populaire. L'ouvrage frappe par le fait que les chercheurs roumains sont soucieux de situer leurs analyses par rapport aux travaux de la semiotique narrative venant d'horizons divers: russe, francais, americain, italien. Dans les deux textes de Solomon Marcus ("Les modeles linguistico-mathematiques et la semiotique du folklore" et "Remarques finales et suggestions pour les recherches ulterieures" qui encadrent le corpus d'analyses des problemes specifiques du folklore, se manifeste de facon tangible le souci de la discussion voire de la polemique et de la continuite, en fonction des categories ou des theorisations de la narrativite qui decoulent du modele d'analyse proppien. Par ailleurs, on constate que les travaux de Marcus et de ses disciples doivent beaucoup aux traditions proprement locales de la science du folklore, telle qu'elle s'est constituee en Roumanie (par exemple Ion Diaconu ou Grigore G.Tocilescu et Tudor Vianu). Une fois de plus, "La Semiotique formelle du folklore" est revelatrice du fait que le folklore est a l'origine de la recherche narrative et scientifique moderne. Les travaux des semioticiens roumains marquent un progres decisif dans ce domaine. Malgre le recours systematique a la formalisation, au calcul, aux equations, a la theorie des ensembles et des graphes, ainsi qu'a d'autres operations mathematiques et statistiques, tous les exposes sont d'une clarte et d'une precision exemplaires. Si la maitrise et le maniement des modeles mathematiques ne font pas probleme et sont d'usage explicitement efficace, il n'en reste pas moins que Solomon Marcus interroge les procedes et les insuffisances des semiotiques narratives actuellement existantes. Marcus pose une serie de questions pertinentes autour de problemes tels que la grammaire narrative, la competence narrative, la segmentation narrative, le recit et le discours, la generalite des modeles et la specificite des textes. "La Semiotique formelle du folklore" est un outil indispensable a l'analyse de la narrativite et de la litterature au sens le plus large, c'est-a-dire aussi du conte et de la fable, de la ballade et du mythe. L'ampleur du travail accompli sur les textes folkloriques et sa haute qualite scientifique permettent de decouvrir, grace a cette ouvrage publie dans la collection "Semiosis" (dirigee par Claude Chabrol et Jean-Claude Coquet), l'originalite et l'importance de l'ecole semiotique roumaine.

"Semne despre semne", Editura Stiintifica si Enciclopedica, Bucuresti,1979.

Mircea Mihaies (Poetica, matematica, semiotica, Orizont, 7(673), 19 febr.,1981, p.3): Recent, amplificand aria cercetarilor ce caracterizau Poetica matematica, S.M. ne-a oferit o excelenta introducere in semiotica, stiinta semnelor. Scrisa cu o mana sigura, dovada a excelentei cunoasteri a unei game largi de informatie si idei, "Semne despre semne" este o binevenita punere la punct intr-un domeniu destul de putin cunoscut momentan, dar care atrage multa lume, cel putin prin insolitul [...] terminologiei si al metodelor. [...] cartea este un inteligent eseu introductiv intr-o stiinta ce se dovedeste tot mai mult un veritabil instrument al interdisciplinaritatii.

"Paradoxul", Ed. Albatros, Bucuresti, 1984.

Serban Cioculescu (Itinerar critic V, Ed.Eminescu, Bucuresti, 1989, p.521-528): Ma despart de admirabila carte a lui S.M., atat de bine gandita si de bine scrisa, cu un singur regret: acela ca d-sa considera normale licentele, unele abominabile, prin care regia contemporana, la noi si cam peste tot, ii masacreaza pe clasicii dramaturgiei (vezi ultimele randuri la p.29).

Eugen Simion ("Logica paradoxului", in "Romania literara", anul 17, nr.18, 3 mai 1984, p.10 si in "Sfidarea retoricii", Ed.Cartea Romaneasca, Bucuresti,1985, p.266-269): "O carte interesanta despre paradox, cu observatii care privesc si critica literara publica matematicianul si semioticianul Solomon Marcus, autorul, intre altele, al unui tratat despre poetica matematica (1970) [...] S.M. este un ghid bun in aceste probleme, ce incanta si inspaimanta mintea. E un om foarte instruit si condeiul lui se misca usor printre concepte. Nu cred sa ma insel descoperind in discursul matematicianului o acuitate a ideilor si o pasionalitate care tradeaza (vreau sa spun: insufleteste) gandirea rece, demonstrativa [...]. Ideea autorului este ca paradoxul a patruns in toate disciplinele spiritului si, in afara lui, nu mai putem intelege lumea. [...] Arta pare a fi domeniul predilect de manifestare a paradoxului si, vazand exemplele date de S.M., ne vine sa credem ca arta traieste intr-un vesnic paradox si nu face decat sa propuna noi paradoxuri. Comedia de limbaj, teatrul in doi peri (vorba lui Sorescu), literatura, in genere, care suceste limba pentru a provoca spiritul comun se revendica dintr-o formula a paradoxului semiotic si formula poate fi analizata in mecanismele interioare. E ceea ce face cu pricepere si subtilitate S.M., examinand o comedie de Ion Baiesu sau un poem de Nichita Stanescu. Analiza antreneaza un numar de idei din sfere diferite si intra ea insasi intr-un paradox involuntar, caci este paradoxal sa vezi explicat personajul Aldesus din piesa "In cautarea sensului pierdut" prin teoria lui Bertrand Russell, prin celebra "Grundlagen der Geometrie" din 1899 a savantului David Hilbert si, din nou, prin teoria multimilor a lui Cantor. Nodurile, mai putin semnele lui Nichita Stanescu, din volumul aparut la Cartea Romaneasca in 1982, sunt puse in legatura cu un proces semiotic (procesul prin care poezia se autosemnifica) si, in acest sens, sunt citati din nou Cantor si Russell, teorema lui Godel, Pius Servien, Jakobson, Tudor Vianu si poetul insusi, ca teoretician al metalimbajului in "Respirari". Merge analiza astfel blindata mai departe decat slaba, nesigura intuitie a criticii literare? Daca judecam astfel lucrurile, intram intr-un nou si indisolubil paradox, caci S.M. nu vrea sa dea judecati de valoare si nu doreste, in niciun chip, sa justifice estetic poezia. El vrea s-o cuprinda in categoriile logicii si sa-i depisteze paradoxurile interioare. Matematicianul nu-si pune problema sa descopere semnele din noduri, ci tocmai nodurile (aporiile) gandirii poetice ascunse in inselatoarele semne. E cautata, cu alte cuvinte, logica nelogica a poeziei, asupra careia atragea atentia, cu o suta de ani in urma, Al. Macedonski. Revenind la paradoxurile artei, trebuie sa dam dreptate lui S.M.: arta este,prin natura ei, paradoxala pentru ca ea provoaca neincetat spiritul comun si foloseste o fictiune (o minciuna) ca sa spuna adevarul. Orice metafora este un paradox concentrat, deoarece incearca sa franga si sa pacifice universurile ostile. Exista o categorie larga de paradoxuri retorice si m-am mirat ca S.M., vorbind despre ele, n-a amintit de preteritiune, figura (din sfera paradoxurilor semiotice) cea mai raspandita in textele moderne. Barthes o foloseste mult in "Discursul indragostit" si, in genere, in textele lui ghibeline. El insusi se defineste, si este, ca atare, un spirit paradoxal, caci in tot ceea ce scrie se vede limpede cum omul legii este corupt sistematic de rasfaturile, aproximatiile omului de lume. Aceasta intalnire da stralucire si salveaza eseurile semioticianului plictisit de stiinta pe care a inventat-o. [...] Cautand logica paradoxului (operatie pe care o intreprinde cu multa stiinta si acuitate intelectuala S.M.), semioticianul intra inevitabil intr-o situatie paradoxala. Numai poezia trage un profit din aceasta imprejurare, caci numai ea stie sa lamureasca nelamuritul si sa dea o expresie aporiilor gandirii. Ea a descoperit de mult legea tertului acceptat si adevarul din sofismul lui Epimenide, cretanul care afirma ca toti cretanii sunt mincinosi. Stiinta n-a reusit, imi dau seama citind "Paradoxul" lui S.M., sa strapunga cercul vicios al gandirii care si-a construit propriile limite. Insa discursul stiintei care complica si adanceste enigmele logicii poate fi creator. Caci numai creatia valorifica esecurile gandirii, dandu-le expresivitate. Stiinta numai le constata. Inca un paradox, poate cel mai mare: o disciplina a spiritului (literatura) care poate valoriza insolubilele spiritului. Recapituland, am putea spune: logica este stiinta care descopera nodurile gandirii. Poezia descopera (inventeaza) semnele din noduri, oferindu-le astfel o iesire din paradox.

Constantin Negoita (Kybernetes 14(1), 1985, 61-62): (sunt reproduse mai intai cateva fraze din Prefata cartii, fara a se pune semnele citarii): "In an excellent piece of work, eminently readable, the paradox is presented not only as a statement that seems to say something opposite to common sense or to truth, but which may contain the truth (e.g., more haste, less speed) as the result of the logic we use. [...]. In another brilliant monograph, Lorenzo Pena, "La coincidencia de los opuestos", edicion de la Universidad Quito, 1981, 568 pp.) [...]. Both Marcus and Pena observe that important progress in logic means a projection onto reality of certain structures of human consciousness. Yet the most amazing fact about modern science is that the structures have turned out to correspond to something out there. Mathematicians, physical scientists, and philosophers of science are still trying to understand just how this is possible. Some of them say that the development of these projections in the history of modern thought has its origins in very specific infrastructures without which this development is most unlikely ever to have taken place. I found these books stimulating and provocative. To those cyberneticians who have not previously looked at purposiveness from a logician's point of view, they will be particularly valuable. One can hardly imagine future research on artificial intelligence that would ignore these thought-provoking contributions.

Tudor Octavian (Flacara-Rebus, anul 27, nr.7 (643), 1 aprilie 1984, p.15): Cartea lui S.M. [...] este genul de tiparitura ce vine in intampinarea unei nevoi. Nevoia de paradox e una pe cat de moderna, pe atat de presanta, iar faptul ce merita a fi remarcat, si el in ordine paradoxala, e ca multi din cititorii lucrarii isi vor fi descoperit acum un apetit de care abia de aveau stiinta, o dorinta ce functiona confuz. Imi amintesc cum am reactionat cu ani in urma, la descoperirea gravurilor lui Escher si, pornind de la ele, a unor paradoxuri grafice (asa nuitele figuri imposibile) si nu pot sa nu ma gandesc la emotia pe care o vor incerca norocosii posesori ai volumului in discutie. O veritabila enciclopedie a problemei, interesand cuprinderi ale spiritului ce nu par sa aiba legatura intre ele - spre exemplu: literatura si matematica - si care probeaza a avea, ba inca legaturi de profunzime si temeinice. [...] Parerea mea este ca aceasta carte e mult mai importanta decat se arata la o prima evaluare si ca importanta ei va spori, pe masura ce publicul cititor va da de gustul cartilor ce prezinta si teoretizeaza chestiunea insolitului din sanul faptului normal. Oricum, e cartea de citit de mai multe ori si, odata cu trecerea anilor, din ratiuni ameliorate.

M.N.Rusu (Amfiteatru, anul 18, nr.4(220), aprilie 1984, p.2): A aparut o carte exceptionala: "Paradoxul" de S.M. [...]; autorului i-am aratat pretuirea mea deosebita inca din articolele pe care i le-am consacrat "Poeticii matematice" (Viata studenteasca 1970; Saptamana 1974) [...] noul volum ofera o multime de sugestii teoretice criticii literare actuale. [...] Autorul propune o serie de termeni si categorii prin care poate fi relevata structura moderna a poeziei lui Nichita Stanescu, actul ei revolutionar. Acestea sunt: antinomia, situatia autoreferentiala, regresia, extensional si intensional (pe care noi le vedem cu mai mare aplicabilitate in proza, de pilda, in "Patul lui Procust", ori in teatru, - Pirandello), paradoxul, recurenta s.a. Ceea ce nu subliniaza S.M. cu acest prilej, - probabil dintr-un scrupul istoriografic, modernismul poeziei lui Nichita revelandu-i-se dupa descoperirea lui Ion Gheorghe (v. Poetica matematica 1970) - este prioritatea autorului lui "Laus Ptolemaei" in materie de utilizare a gandirii paradoxale. A fi mare poet, in cazul lui N.S. si nu numai al lui, inseamna nu numai a fi intaiul dintr-o serie care ilustreaza un adevar comun, ci mai ales a fi reprezentativ. Prin "11 elegii", "Laus Ptolemaei", "Operele imperfecte", "Noduri si semne", N.S. a dat drept de lege functiei paradoxului - cu derivatele lui - in poezia romaneasca de azi. Pe langa exemplele date de S.M. din poezia lui N.S. si a con-fratilor sai, [...] mai adaug unul referitor la tipul de recesiune (vizionara) lansat de poet in 1964: Ma uit in urma asupra varstelor mele / asupra trupurilor ce le-am insirat / in sus / ca pe un stalp ce sprijina cerul cu soare la mijloc. / E-un trup de copil ce tine in brate / un trup de adolescent, / e un adolescent ce ridica pe umeri / un trup de barbat. / E-un trup de barbat ce tine pe frunte / talpile scorojite ale unui batran, / e un batran cu mustata-ngalbenita / de tutun, / ce saruta pe gura / fantomele norilor, / cerul albastru universul negru. Ulterior acestui poem si epocii sale, Marin Sorescu scrie la modul ludic: Fiul isi prinde de mijloc parintele, / si trage din rasputeri / de le trosnesc la amandoi / oasele. / Tatal isi prinde de barba / ori grumaz / tatal./ Si incordandu-si toti muschii / Trage / cu o experienta milenara. / Numai bunicul / nu mai are de cine sa se prinda. / In fata lui e numai aer / fara nici un trup / si incepe a planga / strangand in brate o minge aproape rotunda. In fine, la Ioan Alexandru: Cand e plin cimitirul ochi de la un cap la celalalt / se reia totul de la inceput. / Groapa bunicului meu peste groapa strabunicului meu. / Tatal meu peste bunicul meu / si tot asa vechiul primar / peste stravechiul primar - vechiul popa / peste stravechiul popa, / vechiul sat peste stravechiul meu sat.[...]. Cu "Paradoxul" lui S.M., inaintarea in universul poeziei marelui disparut a devenit mai usoara si, mai ales, stiintifica.

"Timpul", Editura Albatros, Bucuresti, 1985.

Dinu Flamand ("Despre poezia stiintei", Steaua, anul 36, 1985, nr.12, p.42): [...] eruditia nu striveste, ci evidentiaza pachetul de idei, expunerea sintetica este de o eleganta concizie si economicitate, angajarea analitica devine o maieutica disimulata, iar punctul de vedere al autorului [...] se articuleaza cu o discretie lipsita de orice redundanta si emfaza.[...] Cred ca dintre ele (cartile lui S.M.), cea mai fermecatoare, anume recent aparutul studiu despre timp, este una dintre acele carti care pot decide destinul intelectual al unui tanar. Si nu ar fi exclus ca acel tanar sa fie chiar un tanar poet. Cat de modern este un poet, fata de ideile vremii sale? s-ar mai putea intreba acel tanar dupa ce a citit cartea lui S.M. Iata, de exemplu, vechile cosmogonii poetice; ele tin in mod clar de o gandire mitica, reconsiderata cu fervoare de romantism, moment dupa care cosmogoniile intra in desuetidine. Dar toata aceasta lunga perioada are un corespondent in conceptia noastra despre timpul liniar. S-a modificat oare timpul newtonian in poezie? Da si nu. Mai degraba nu, considerand multitudinea de sugestii (nefructificata) pe care le ofera astazi stiintele. Problema tahionilor, de pilda, particule presupuse a se deplasa cu viteza superioara vitezei lumi, poate bulversa un sistem poetic traditional. Iesind in afara liniaritatii newtoniene clasice, poezia (in fond, ea este o relevanta a multidimensionalitatii) s-ar putea sincroniza cu miscarea mult mai majestuos vizionara care, din pacate pentru poezie, apartine in aceasta epoca mai degraba stiintei. Caci adevarul este acesta: de multe ori poezia ramane la o vizualizare aplatizata, in timp ce imaginatia omului de stiinta avanseaza imperturbabila in zonele inca nedeschise ale misterului, jongland cu dimensiuni ametitoare. E adevarat insa ca o sincronizare infloritoare este nu doar necesara, dar si posibila. Boltzman discuta despre asimetria temporala din perspectiva termodinamicii si a mecanicii statistice. Dar e nevoie si de poet (in exemplul nostru de Borges) pentru ca teoria sa se insufleteasca de nota cordiala a umanului: "probele mortii sunt statistice/ si nu exista ins care sa nu alerge/ dupa sansa de a fi el cel dintai nemuritor" - spune intr-o paranteza poetul. Cred ca literatura de maine va fi si cea a unor vechi teme, revizuite din perspectiva stiintei. Atunci cand omul de stiinta considera a fi cel putin dubioasa, asa cum afirma S.M., ideea dupa care lumea posibila obtinuta printr-o oglindire este identica celei reale, nici fictionarul traditional nu mai poate imagina literatura in tihna vechiului si, in fond, comodului bun simt, dupa preceptele unei simetrii fara probleme. Tot astfel, cum sa nu-l clinteasca din reprezentarile sale de pana acum, si de poet, o uluitoare teorie, de pilda de felul celeia obtinute de Mushakoji prin modelarea matematica a timpului? Pur si simplu nu mai ai cum sa concepi, pe mai departe, o reprezentare liniara a timpului odata ce ti s-a dezvaluit o astfel de perspectiva dobandita prin analiza de tip nonstandard. Sa citeasca poetii urmatoarele fraze din cartea lui S.M. si-mi vor da dreptate: "Un punct de timp este o parte a viitorului nedeterminat si, totodata, o parte a trecutului determinat. Un punct de timp este intalnirea a doi vectori; vectorul linie, care uneste punctul de timp cu trecutul si vectorul coloana, care-l deschide spre viitor". Ar fi interesant sa se studieze in ce masura poezia noastra din aceasta a doua parte a secolului a profitat sau nu de asemenea deschideri provenite din fizica, matematica, astrofizica, biologie [...] sau etnologie. Cred ca o concluzie ar fi mai degraba nemultumitoare. O vreme s-a prelungit influenta mitologizanta, apoi cativa poeti au capatat refugiu in parapsihonirism, foarte putini in filosofie (fie ea si traditionala), si mai rari au fost cei care sa-si anexeze sursele energetice ale fizicii. Este pur si simplu o situatie de analfabetism, daca nu o incapacitate de reactie, un indiferentism de speta consumismului actual. Facultatea noastra de a ne uimi s-a narcotizat oarecum sau a echivalat revolutia stiintifica revolutiei tehnologice, considerata, aceasta, ca fiind mai putin nobila(prin pragmatism), deci marginalizata in optiunile spiritualitatii. La multe asemenea consideratii poate incita "Timpul" lui S.M.

Stelian Tanase ("Masura pentru masura", Flacara, anul XXXIV, nr.36(1577), vineri 6 septembrie 1985, p.11): [...] Nimic esential nu trece neobservat, necomentat cu patrundere. In stilul sau limpede, cele mai complicate si obscure chestiuni devin transparente si lesne de inteles, fara ca autorul sa fi simplificat sau vulgarizat cat de putin datele problemei. Odiseea parcurgerii acestui teritoriu plin de capcane, pete albe, incrucisari suprapopulate si ascunzisuri face din lectura acestei remarcabile carti o aventura a cunoasterii, fara sa-si piarda ceva din atributele de suspans ale descifrarii unei mari enigme.S.M. stie sa intrebe, sa surprinda, ceea ce este hotarator, constant intr-un domeniu sau altul, si lasa deoparte aspectele intamplatoare, pretins spectaculoase. Expunerea sa aparent rece este in fapt desfasurarea in timp a unei gandiri autentice care nu se multumeste sa inregistreze si sa selecteze din fluxul de informatii teoriile recent aparute, informatiile de laborator abia publicate. Masura caracterizeaza deplin dezbaterile sale interioare asupra: istoriei universului si ruperilor de simetrie, proceselor ireversibile, conflictului dintre energii antagoniste, statutului evenimentelor viitoare etc., probleme pasionante. [...] Surprins din atatea unghiuri, dupa desprinderea din corpul comun, timpul capata diferite chipuri, dupa zona in care opereaza, astfel incat s-ar putea crede, la o privire superficiala si grabita, ca avem de a face cu "naturi" diferite, cu probleme separate. Un biolog isi va infatisa duratele in functie de cu totul alte criterii decat un astronom, pentru scriitor rezolvarea chestiunii temporalitatii inseamna rezolvarea celei mai dificile probleme a strategiei naratoriale, pentru un fizician stabilirea conventiei de timp cuprinde in ea insasi axiome etc., etc. S.M. incearca sa unifice intr-o viziune coerenta, pornind de la o larga comprehensiune a problematicii si o stapanire fara egal a materialului, toate aceste zone disparate, iar demersul, aflat la inceput abia, ii reuseste in mare parte.

Vasile Constantinescu ("Monografia timpului", Cronica, anul XX, nr.35(1022), 30 august 1985, p.2): Fireste, ca orice carte stiintifica, lucrarea realizata de S.M. este in primul rand o cercetare al carei profil se circumscrie sferei foarte riguroase a stiintei. De fiecare data insa, la semnificatia stiintifica si culturala a problemelor discutate se adauga si cea filozofica [...].Pentru ca in acest caz, ca de altfel in toate lucrarile semnate de savantul S.M., omul de stiinta este dublat de un adevarat scriitor.

Calin Anastasiu ("Timp, istorie, timpi", Viata studenteasca, anul XXIX, nr.43(1067), miercuri 23 octombrie 1985, p.9): Parcursesem mai bine de jumatate din cartea profesorului S.M. - ceea ce echivaleaza cu o punere in contact cu patru-cinci discipline stiintifice si cu mai multe perspective, in interiorul fiecareia dintre ele, asupra timpului - cand mi-am dat seama ca acest demers este esentialmente identic cu spectaculoasa incursiune a lui Mircea Eliade in mitologia vechilor societati. Proportiile sunt pastrate, caci este vorba in primul rand de tipul cercetarii si abia apoi de extensiunea ei. In "Mitul eternei reintoarceri", de pilda, M.E. examineaza segmentul cel mai reprezentativ al creatiei spiritulale caracteristice societatilor arhaice: creatia mitica, alaturi de o larga categorie de ritualuri, ce nu reprezinta decat modele comportamentale inspirate si regizate conform unui scenariu mitic. Nu este greu de observat ca miturile si ritualurile inglobeaza, laolalta, cosmologia, ontologia, sociologia si istoriografia acestui tip de culturi. Concluzia lui Eliade este ca toate aceste creatii si modele culturale contin, in substratul lor, pe de o parte "motivul repetitiei unui gest arhetipal, proiectat pe toate planurile: cosmic, biologic, istoric, uman etc.", iar pe de alta parte "o structura ciclica a timpului", care este regenerat odata cu fiecare "nastere", indiferent pe ce plan ar avea loc. Aceasta "eterna reintoarcere" releva o ontologie necontaminata de timp si devenire ("Le mythe de l'eternel retour", Gallimard, Paris, 1969, p.108). Asa cum arata M.E., in masura in care un act (de pilda, vindecarea unui bolnav) sau un obiect (un templu, sa zicem) nu capata atributul realitatii decat prin repetarea unor gesturi paradigmatice, avem de-a face cu o abolire implicita a timpului profan, a duratei, a "istoriei" si cu reinstaurarea sacralitatii purificatoare a timpului mitic, acelui "illo tempore" originar si potent. [...] La randul sau, prof. S.M. se apleaca asupra acelui gen de creatie spirituala ce tinde sa domine cultura societatii moderne: creatia stiintifica. Astazi stim bine ca, desi se intemeiaza pe un tip de gandire ce se vrea opus celui mitic, stiinta moderna are propriile sale mituri. De altfel, "caderea in mit" este o capcana pentru orice fel de gandire. De la fizica, matematica si biologie la lingvistica, semiotica, sociologie si psihologie, S.M. inventariaza perspectivele asupra acestui "punc fix" pe care-l reprezinta timpul - si intregul complex problematic ce a luat nastere in jurul sau - pentru toate stiintele moderne. Rezultatele acestui periplu spiritual cocertat sunt oarecum deconcertante. Stiintele naturii au debutat, in perioada moderna, sub semnul unui model unic asupra timpului. Reprezentarea tutelara a fost cea newtoniana-kantiana (ingloband si importante sugestii carteziene) in care dimensiunii temporale i-au fost asociate postulate fundamentale precum liniaritatea si ireversibilitatea, ambele decurgand din statutul obiectiv al existentei de sine statatoare (in sine) a timpului. [...] Concomitent, timpul devine tot mai mult un obiect de reflectie relativ autonom si daca nu avem astazi constituita o "stiinta a timpului", este numai pentru ca tendinta recenta a disciplinelor stiintifice merge spre diferentierea lor nu atat prin obiectul de studiu (pe plan ontologic), cat mai ales prin perspectivele particulare asupra acestuia si prin metodele specifice de abordare [...] nu prea mai avem de a face cu "timp", ci cu timpi (astronomic, atomic, macrofizic, microfizic, biologic, psihologic, logic etc.). Stiintele sociale au avut o evolutie asemanatoare, desi oarecum defazata. [...] Prof. Marcus prezinta abordarea timpului propusa de japonezul K.Mushakoji ... Mutatia esentiala consta in aceea ca stiintele sociale recupereaza, asa cum arata S.M., spatiul conceptual dintre temporal si aevitic.

Alin Teodorescu ("Spre o noua paradigma?", Viata studenteasca, anul XXIX, nr.43(1007), miercuri 23 octombrie 1985, p.9): Ceea ce surprinde de la bun inceput in cartea prof. S.M., "Timpul", este strania pulverizare a perspectivelor din care disciplinele stiintifice exacte si socio-umane abordeaza problema in sine. Pe prima pagina a cartii, S.M. enumera aproape douazeci de feluri de timp de care se ocupa [...] si se scuza pentru faptul de a nu fi putut analiza alte zece. Uimitoare aceasta diversitate iar lectura volumului, scris in asa fel incat oricine isi mai aminteste cateva notiuni elementare de matematica il poate urmari pana la capat, te convinge intr-adevar ca nu exista astazi posibilitatea de a aborda problematica timpului dintr-o singura perspectiva. Cred ca una dintre cele mai rezistente impresii cu care ramane lectorul cartii lui S.M. este un fel de perplexitate creativa privitoare la stadiul cercetarii si analizei timpului. Nimic definitiv in aceasta investigatie, spune S.M., nimic care sa aduca a dogmatica sau a liniaritate, nimic de natura a te convinge ca problema timpului a fost rezolvata, cel putin dintr-o anumita perspectiva a ei.[...] Cartea prof. Marcus nu este un eseu in sensul frantuzesc al cuvantului, o rostire despre timp vehiculand experienta personala, aforistica si bibliografia intr-un amestec greu de unificat altfel decat pe cale literara, ci o foarte "nemteasca" metodica, exacta analiza a ceea ce este realmente semnificativ in momentul de fata in analiza timpului, in cateva domenii stiintifice capitale.[...] Mi-a atras atentia, in mijlocul acestei pulverzari a paradigmelor despre timp, o afirmatie a prof. Marcus care spune ca s-ar parea ca, cel putin o parte a disciplinelor exacte, ipoteza circularitatii este de luat in considerare pentru a unifica paradigma despre timp. Afirmatia este intr-adevar socanta, caci in filosofie, de pilda, timpul circular, procesele circulare au fost indelung criticate, in special in secolul trecut. G.Vico a fost considerat in tot secolul al XIX-lea, un filosof care s-a sprijinit pe ideea circularitatii, pentru a oferi o baza unitara proceselor din natura si societate si care datiruta acestei premise a ratat incontestabil o viziune utila despre lume.Intrega filosofie a secolului trecut a fost dominata din acest punct de vedere de imagiunea liniaritatii, de sageata orientata intr-un singur sens, de la trecut spre viitor, de la istorie spre prezent. Orice incercare de a face filosofie prin intermediul ipotezei circularitatii a fost condamnata cu vigoare. Sa ne amintim, de exemplu, modul in care Kierkegaard a tratat filosofia hegeliana, sprijinita si ea pe ipoteza circularitatii, K. ripostandu-i lui Hegel ca toate unitatile sale dialectice se rezolva intr-un singur sens, trec mereu de la simplu la complex, de la inferior la superior. Sensul timpului este unic, afirma K., si anume in degradare, in nici un caz in progres, in evolutie. Acuza lui K. fata de H. era insa mai potrivita in cazul lui Vico, pentru ca intr-adevar la acesta ciclicitatea se intemeiaza pe o revenire in punctul de plecare, timpul nefiind decat o "dimensiune de lungime" a proceselor naturale. La Hegel, dimpotriva, evolutia cere ca timpul sa fie incastrat ca o dimensiune calitativa a ciclului, revenirea la punctul de plecare nefiind decat aparenta [...] critica lui K. este de fapt o critica a sensului evolutiei, nu si a felului de timp, perceput in continuare, in traditia secolului trecut, ca o sageata.[...] liniaritatea a fost caracteristica dominanta a timpului perceput de catre diferite discipline stiintifice in ultimul secol. Timpul-sageata este o ipoteza foarte convenabila, utila, eficienta deoarece admite periodicitatea, respectiv repetitia ca fenomen evident frecvent in natura si, mai putin evident, dar prezent in istorie. Timpul-sageata admite, de asemenea, fascicularitatea, respectiv, existenta si evolutia mai multor feluri de fenomene interdependente in acelasi timp, tot asa cum admite si simultaneitatea, respectiv existenta si evolutia simultana a unor fenomene independente. Unicitatea sensului, periodicitatea, fascicularitatea si simultaneitatea sunt suficiente caracteristici ale timpului-sageata pentru a permite oamenilor de stiinta operarea libera in campul propriilor discipline. Iata insa ca un lant de fapte atrag atentia asupra ideii de circularitate, idee pe care prof. S.M. o considera de mare viitor in stiintele exacte.

"Moduri de gandire", Ed.Stiintifica si Enciclopedica, Bucuresti, 1987.

Vasile Popovici ("Utile dulci", Orizont 49(1084), 4 dec.1987, p.2): Marturisesc ca, vazandu-i cuprinsul, am avut un recul; parea sa se anunte un studiu peste puterile de intelegere ale unui filolog. Lectura a fost insa pasionanta, fiind vorba despre un text nu doar accesibil, dar si de mare interes. S.M. detecteaza aici urmatoarele moduri de gandire: gandirea matematica, binara, combinatorie elementara, selectiva, prin metafore, prin modele, triadica, topologica, energetic-entropica, ipotetica si combinatorie, a infinitatii, transformatoare, prin numere remarcabile, combinatorie si computationala, sahista si euristica. Simpla lor enumerare pune de la sine in evidenta doua aspecte: ca autorul nu a vizat sistematizarea lor mai riguroasa si ca nu a incercat sa obtina aceste moduri de gandire dupa criterii care sa le epuizeze asa cum epuizeaza tabela lui Mendeleev elementele chimice, pe cele cunoscute ca si pe cele inca necunoscute (daca, pentru gandire, asa ceva este posibil). Dar aceasta operatie nu cade in seama autorului, ci, cum sugeram, in seama epistemologului sau a filosofului. [...] Iti trebuie apoi un oarecare rafinament spre a gusta la modul artistic, sastisit de atata comun balast metaforic, stilul acesta de prezentare, de o eleganta aristocratica, venind din economia desavarsita a expresiei, obtinuta si ea din exersarea canoanelor matematicii.

"Arta si stiinta", Ed.Eminescu, Bucuresti, 1986.

Nicolae Manolescu: Alianta sau mezalianta?, (Romania literara, anul 20, nr.19, 7 mai 1987, p.9): Fiindca nu e suficient sa fii convins ca matematica si lingvistica pot veni in sprijinul studiului artei, mai trebuie sa posezi dubla ori tripla competenta care sa-ti ingaduie sa te misti in toate aceste domenii. S.M. este omul cel mai informat, din cati cunosc, in respectivele discipline. Si nu ca un simplu amator, curios si inteligent, care le stapaneste acceptabil alfabetul, ceea ce, la urma urmelor, mi se pare realizabil, ci ca un adevarat profesionist. Cel mai succint dintre studii este, inainte de orice, o mina inepuizabila de informare pentru cititor, cu o bibliografie la z, care pe mine, cel putin, ma umileste. Pana la a-l citi pe Marcus, ma credeam capabil a ma tine la curent cu ce se intampla in disciplina mea. Acum imi dau seama ca m-am hranit cu o iluzie. Si inca! Marcus e la zi nu numai in matematica, dar si in poetica sau semiotica, si, indiferent daca obiectul e literatura, muzica sau artele plastice, ca sa nu mai spun ca, in alte carti ale sale, era vorba si de biologie, si de alte stiinte, care mie imi raman complet misterioase. Marcus isi incepe studiile cu un excurs in istoricul problemei tratate, urmat de indicarea dificultatilor majore ivite; si rareori aceste studii se cantoneaza intr-o latura a problemei, ele cautand deobicei sa epuizeze problema insasi. As putea da oricate exemple, chiar din "Arta si stiinta", cum ar fi un remarcabil, prin concizie, bogatie si limpezime, studiu despre simbol din prima parte sau studiul din partea a cincea intitulat "Aspecte teoretice ale narativitatii". Iata, acesta din urma, desi n-are decat vreo zece pagini, se bazeaza pe aproape o suta de titluri bibliografice, in cinci limbi, si trece in revista, practic, toate punctele interesante de discutie. La fel de instructiv este si studiul despre "Un print al esteticii: Matila C.Ghyka". Acestea si altele au, in fond, caracterul unor articole de enciclopedie si se citesc cu profitul acelora, scutindu-ne de bajbaieli si de pierdere de vreme, oferindu-ne de-a gata intreg materialul, si nu oricum, ci sistematizat, iar cateodata pigmentat cu fine observatii critice personale. O anumita inclinatie spre popularizare n-are cum lipsi din scrisul lui Marcus, caci el se adreseaza necontenit unui cititor care ar trebui sa fie el insusi un specialist in mai multe domenii, ceea ce e o utopie, dar ea este compensata adesea de nivelul inalt al cunostintelor, de precizia stiintifica a expunerii si de existenta unui unghi propriu in abordare. Chiar si obiectiile pe care Marcus le face confratilor trebuie considerate in aceasta lumina [...]:"Noutatea acestui Caragiale al lui Florin Manolescu sta intr-o viziune strategica intuitiva, a carei jonctiune cu teoria matematica a jocurilor ramane inca palida, scrie autorul in comentariul din care am mai citat. Ne putem intreba de ce, la urma urmelor, intuitia critica ar trebui spriinita stiintific. [...] Sa fie chiar totuna partea de organizare lucida din poezie cu structurile de care se ocupa matematica? E posibil ca, la unii poeti (sau la unii compozitori), si doar ca experiment, sa fie observabil un calcul atat de riguros al elementelor compozitionale intrate in joc incat sa aiba la baza o procedura pur matematica (referinta la cazul Vieru-Vuza, la care N.M. ar putea adauga si alte exemple, nota mea, S.M.). In tot cazul, ele raman exceptii. Ajutorul matematicii nu merge deobicei atat de departe. Cred ca stiu si de ce: pentru ca in arta structura nu elucideaza, ca sa spun asa, valoarea. Exact pe aceasta tema, Marcus imi raspunde la unele intrebari mai vechi. Eu spusesem ca daca, in arta, orice valoare implica o anumita structura, nici o structura nu devine automat valoare prin dezvoltarea premiselor ei constitutive. Marcus raspunde, mai intai, ca n-a intrat nici un moment in vederea studiului sau despre basm, care era in discutie, descrierea valorii estetice. De acord, si e probabil sa-i fi atribuit eu intentia, din ideea ca a te ocupa de arta fara sa atingi valoarea nu e semnificativ. Dar, se intreaba autorul, nu cumva tot ce intra in domeniul explicabilului inceteaza, chiar prin aceasta, de a putea identifica valoarea estetica? Si adauga: Numai ca, in masura in care vrem sa si argumentam valoarea, nu doar s-o afirmam, alt acces la ea decat prin structura (fie ea tipologica sau istorica) nu avem. Intreb la randul meu: nu cumva dorinta de a argumenta valoarea ne conduce la o aporie? Ce-ar fi sa lasam valoarea doar pe seama intuitiei, asa cum structura cade in aceea a ratiunii? Actuala scientizare a criticii aluneca intr-un paradox: nici o metoda pozitiva nu are cum intra in contact cu valoarea, care totusi e de neocolit in arta, si atunci incearca s-o asedieze dinspre partea structurii, desi stie din experienta ca asediul acesta e fara izbanda. Marcus insusi se refera la naiva teorie a lui Birkhoff de a masura placerea estetica. Valoarea nu e cuprinsa de nici un parametru numeric. Auxiliile matematicii se opresc in fata acestei usi inchise. Mi s-ar parea mai cuminte sa acceptam un fel de principiu de nedeterminare sui-generis, si anume ca nu te poti referi la valoare decat punand in paranteza structura si invers. Ar decurge de aici ca interdisciplinaritatea e binevenita, cu conditia sa nu se transforme in mezalianta. Si aman deocamdata chestiunea de a sti care din soti, arta sau stiinta, este mai indreptatit sa considere alianta dintre ei o mezalianta. A doua tema a cartii lui Marcus este [...] aceea a raportului dintre limbajul stiintifc si cel poetic [...] si fundamenteaza aceasta opozitie, care inlocuieste pe aceea, mult mai populara, dintre limbajul uzual si acela poetic. Argumentele autorului sunt solide si merita toata atentia. El ajunge acum la 53 de opozitii, din care unele false opozitii, dar mentinute pentruca gasesc credit la numerosi poeticieni si trebuie discutate. In plus, fata de"Poetica matematica", Marcus priveste acum cu mai multa circumspectie opozitii de tipul rational/emotional, profitand totodata de ocazie ca sa raspunda extrem de numerosilor comentatori romani sau straini ai cartii sale din 1970. Aceasta din urma parte a studiului despre limbajul stiintific si limbajul poetic este un model de polemica civila, daca pot spune asa, data fiind etimologia celor doua cuvinte. In totul, "Arta si stiinta" este o carte foarte serioasa si foarte utila.

Mircea Mihaies ("Vietile paralele", Viata studenteasca, anul 31, nr.20(1148), 20 mai 1987, p.8): Cartile premergatoare acestei "Arta si Stiinta" vadeau un pronuntat caracter de edificiu in constructie. Ele traiau mai ales prin virtualitate. Prin marea cantitate de amanunte, prin informatia intotdeauna coplesitoare. Descoperim acum intentia clara de a recupera si creatia anterioara. Profesorul se citeaza cu insistenta, argumentele sale provin adeseori din celelalte carti. Recapituland, S.M. introduce si o nota nestiuta pana atunci, de subiectivitate. Analiza pare o competitie a eului cu sine iar demonstratia un mijloc eficient de polemica. Nicicand n-a fost S.M. atat de transant in opinii. De la constatarile de ordin general pana la cele vizand aspecte particulare, vocea nu se rezuma sa corecteze, sa imbunatateasca si afirma - pana la intoleranta - altceva. Adevarul se afla intotdeauna in alt loc decat il vazusera preopinentii sai - directi sau indirecti. O mare pofta de a pune ordine, de a stabili prioritati, de a regandi ideile il determina pe autor sa deschida un adevarat razboi al competentelor. Rand pe rand, autori ("Cu tot respectul pe care-l avem pentru reabilitarea filosofica a retoricii, reabilitare la care a contribuit mult si Vasile Florescu, trebuie sa constatam ca cei mai multi autori pe care-i invoca se prevaleaza esential, in cercetarile lor, de gandirea matematica iar continuarea operei lor s-a facut tot pe baza de matematica".) sau concepte ("Numai ca, in masura in care vrem sa si argumentam valoarea, nu doar s-o afirmam, alt acces la ea decat prin structura (fie ea tipologica sau istorica) nu avem. Acest fenomen este greu vizibil intr-o cronica literara, in asa-zisa critica de intampinare, deoarece aici traiesc intr-un amestec confuz elemente rationale si elemente intuitive, sugestii si observatii de tipologie, exclamatii, analogii si schitari de fapte de structura") se prabusesc sub tirul necrutator al acestui logician al scrisului. Executia nu este niciodata sumara. Autorul pare, intr-o prima faza, ca accepta parerea adversarului. Aceasta prima luare de contact este urmata de o rasucire, de un studiu sistematic, metodic. Argumentele sunt dezamorsate pas cu pas, iar ideea este inlocuita cu alta, in mod logic cea valabila.Carte ambitioasa, "Arta si Stiinta" nu ramane o simpla contributie.S.M. nazuie la o viziune coerenta a relatiilor dintre ele. Vietile paralele se contopesc sub flacara unei analize de mare forta percutanta. Structurata pe problemele limbajului, cartea propune, dintr-o perspectiva noua, cercetarea limbajului poetic si a celui stiintific. Autorul investigheaza mai multe domenii (poezia, muzica, teatrul, narativitatea, artele vizuale) din perspectiva metodelor stiintifice folosite in studiul lor. Sa remarcam, in incheiere, un sunet cu totul nou in scrisul lui S.M. Confesiunea, marturisirea, in sfarsit, implicarea persoanei autorului aduc o neasteptata nuanta de subiectivitate creatoare. Vocea omului se aude sonora, distincta. Semn ca savantul participa cu toata vibratia fiintei sale la viata creatiei. Nuanta cu atat mai pretioasa cu cat ea nu contrazice obiectivitatea de ansamblu a demonstratiei. Adica a acelui procedeu si a acelei tehnici pe care S.M. le manuieste precum un maestru.

Mircea Scarlat (Viata Romaneasca, anul 82, mai 1987, nr.5, 79-83): Nu cunosc un alt cercetator roman care sa fi abordat, dintr-o perspectiva coerenta, atatea domenii ale artei; numai cinematografia lipseste, cu toate ca asupra ei s-ar putea extrapola unele dintre concluziile despre teatru. Meritele de pionierat ale autorului si situatia neoficiala de lider al interdisciplinaritatii romanesti il fac sa scrie o lucrare care, in mai mare masura decat precedentele, este o pledoarie convingatoare in privinta rolului interdisciplinaritatii in stiinta contemporana. [...] Autorul a gasit o metafora relevanta spre a sublinia rolul matematicii in intelegerea artei, aratand ca metoda exacta este fata de judecata empirica (de gust) ceea ce lupa (sau microscopul) este fata de privirea cu ochiul liber [...]. Chiar in cazul unui obiect direct vizibil lupa (si cu atat mai mult microscopul) va distinge mai multe detalii, va suplimenta cu ceva puterea ochiului. [...] In sprijinul pledoariei explicite sunt aduse numeroase analize concrete. Exemplara prin rezultate imi pare cea a poeziei soresciene. [...] Omul care a strabatut cartile fundamentale aparute pe mapamond are inca privirea proaspata (microscopul nu diminueaza increderea in ceea ce vezi cu ochiul liber) spre a investiga imediata noastra apropiere. Este un merit rar, inscriindu-se intre elementele inefabile ce determina o vocatie stiintifica. [...] Preocuparea pentru adevar n-o exclude pe cea pentru calitatea estetica a mesajului [...] Sunt in recentul volum pagini eeistice cu valoare literara in sine, precum capitolul "Sclavi si stapani ai numarului de aur", din care citez: "Statutul numarului de aur este semnificativ pentru caile creatiei artistice. Pe de o parte, artistul se indreapta instinctiv spre anumite structuri, pe de alta parte, el efectueaza in mod deliberat anumite alegeri. Mai exista insa posibilitatea intermediara ca autorul sa constientizeze unele dintre actele sale, chiar daca ele nu au intrat in intentia sa. Numarul de aur ilustreaza fiecare dintre aceste trei situatii. [...] Suntem in acelasi timp sclavi si stapani ai numarului de aur" (p.40). Cert este ca nici vocatia eseistica (reprimata, inca), nici darul formularilor lapidare: "Dificultatea de a intelege un poet e dificultatea de a invata o limba noua"; p.210), nici verva polemica nu-i lipsesc acestui matematician. Frumusetea scrisului sau nu sta in metaforizare si ornare; este o frumusete de alt ordin, bazata pe acuratetea mesajului si pe surpriza produsa prin abaterea de la previzibil. [...] Meritul esential al cartii este dovedirea faptului ca rigoarea nu altereaza gustul, nici nu perverteste sensibilitea.

Mihai Niculescu ("Capcanele subtilitatii", Luceafarul, anul 30, nr.36(1321), 5 sept. 1987, p.1 si 7): [...] volum de mare densitate, logica si de sugestie. [...] Cartea profesorului Solomon Marcus ni se pare foarte valoroasa, nu atat prin certitudinile pe care ni le ofera (cum ar fi aceea ca entropia poeziei "Somnoroase pasarele" este egala cu 4.2274), ci mai ales prin bogatia sugestiilor si prin profunzimea problemelor care raman ... probleme.

Smaranda Vultur (Orizont 22(1058), 29 mai 1987, anul 38, p.6): Starnesc admiratie nu doar anvergura, ca sa spunem asa, bibliografica a cartii, ci si spiritul ei viu, nelinistit. Batalia pentru precizie terminologica si consecventa teoretica e condusa fara incrancenare, cu stapanirea celui care-si elaboreaza indelung ideile (deci tine la ele) si cu o competenta ce nu e o demonstratie in sine, ci capata sens doar in dialog. Condus cu eleganta, chiar cand taisul e polemic, dialogul este in aceasta carte o dimensiune esentiala a discursului stiintific. El duce la neasteptate revelatii in legatura cu inrudirile mai profunde intre limbajul poetic si cel al matematicii, sugerand apropieri nu doar in ce priveste natura acestor limbaje, pe care ne-am deprins a le pune in opozitie, ci si in interpretarea poeziei, in analiza mijloacelor de organizare interna prin care textul poetic echilibreaza entropia sau a relatiilor poemului cu sistemul limbii, cu limbajul pe care il ilustreaza si cu o tipologie posibila a textualitatii poetice. Vasta sectiune consacrata limbajului stiintific si celui poetic propune o forma de dialog al autorului cu rezultatele propriilor cercetari anterioare. Capitolul respectiv reliefeaza pregnant locul pe care-l ocupa "Poetica matematica"(1970) in cercetarea actuala a poeziei, urmarindu-se istoricul cercetarii, ecourile pe care le-a avut cartea si modul cum au contribuit acestea la starnirea unor noi intrebari si la confruntarea autorului cu necesitatea de a preciza unele lucruri, de a pune altfel accentul demonstratiei si de a sugera si alte deschideri ale acesteia. [...] Un itinerar pasionant, pe care vom fi bucurosi sa-l urmarim in continuare.

"Inventie si descoperire", Ed. Cartea Romaneasca, Bucuresti, 1989.

Ioana Em. Petrescu (Steaua, nr.9(508), sept. 1989, p.7-8): Ultimele lucrari ale lui S.M. - "Paradoxul" (1984), "Timpul" (1985), "Arta si stiinta" (1986), "Provocarea stiintei" (1988), ca si recenta "Inventie si descoperire" (1989) - se plaseaza intr-o zona de preocupari de cel mai acut interes, explorand simptomele spectaculoasei mutatii de epistema ai carei martori suntem. Criza logicii aristotelice ("Paradoxul"), regandirea categoriei de timp si consecintele sale ("Timpul"), incitantele pagini inchinate fizicii cuantice [...] in "Provocarea stiintei" conduc cititorul in miezul fierbinte al unei problematici care marcheaza evolutia filosofiei stiintei din ultima jumatate de veac. [...] Ultima lucrare a lui S.M. aduce, in aceasta directie,cateva argumente convingatoare, asupra carora voi reveni la momentul potrivit. Ceea ce am incercat deocamdata a fost sa plasez lucrarile profesorului S.M. in contextul pe care ele il reclama - un context de filosofia culturii, devenit acut actual prin mutatia de epistema de care vorbeam.Incadrate acestui context, lucrarile in discutie se caracterizeaza prin doua trasaturi esentiale. In primul rand, printr-o informatie de ultima ora in domenii stiintifice de varf, informatie de cele mai multe ori inaccesibila nespecialistior [...] Selectate si prezentate de un eminent matematician, un spirit de riguroasa formatie stiintifica, inzestrat cu har pedagogic, aceste informatii devin [...] accesibile cititorului dornic sa inteleaga, la propriu, pe ce lume traim [...]. In al doilea rand [...], axarea discutiei [...] in jurul unor concepte-cheie (paradox, timp, realitate) [...] reprezinta o contributie reala in intelegerea mutatiei de epistema despre care vorbeam. In sensul acesta, ultimul volum e in cel mai inalt grad reprezentativ [...]. "Inventie si descoperire" ofera cateva argumente de prima importanta pentru definirea postmodernismului ca model cultural ce incearca reabilitarea, in cadrul noii episteme (mostenita de la modernism), a perspectivei antropocentrice.

"Intalnirea extremelor", Editura Paralela 45, Pitesti, 2005.

Tudorel Urian ("Matematica si literatura", Romania literara, nr.22, 8-14 iunie 2005, p.5): [...] Viziunea lui S.M. asupra cunoasterii este una cumulativa, benigna, din care nimeni si nimic nu sunt a priori exclusi. [...] "Intalnirea extremelor" este o carte fundamentala. Ea combina poezia si matematica, fizica si romanul, spatiul si timpul, epistemologia si semiotica, calculatorul si literatura, filozofia si stiinta, identitatea si alteritatea. Intrebarile pe care si le pune S.M. sunt intrebarile vremii noastre si, de aceea, cartea sa se citeste cu pasiune si entuziasm. Nu stiu - si nici nu conteaza - daca toate raspunsurile oferite de autor sunt definitive. Importante raman intrebarile. [...] In ultima instanta, "Intalnirea extremelor" este un manual pentru intelegerea lumii postmoderne in care traim [...].

Paul Cernat ("S.M. in "zona translucida" a matematicii", Ziua, joi 16 iunie 2005, p.12): Cartea este o constructie noua si ambitioasa, alcatuita, in parte, din materiale mai vechi. Unele dintre textele topit in configuratia de tip puzzle a prezentului volum au fost reluate fie din opuri anterioare [...], fie din eseuri si conferinte aparute in ultimii douazeci de ani [...]. Autorul identifica la tot pasul legaturi surprinzatoare intre episteme diferite (v. Cassirer si Heisenberg despre Goethe si Newton), gloseaza cu verva si umor pe marginea poeticitatii involuntare a "Trigonometriei" lui Gheorghe Lazar, discuta din perspectiva semiotica relatiile operei eminesciene cu matematica infinitului, exploreaza aritmetica narativa a lui Ion Creanga (la care descopera o "structura fibonacciana"), interpreteaza poezia lui Bacovia prin prisma mecanicii cuantice si a teoriei campurilor, avanseaza propuneri iluminante de analiza matematico-literara a operei unor autori romani (Ion Barbu-Dan Barbilian, Stefan Aug. Doinas, Nichita Stanescu s.a.) sau straini (Lawrence Sterne, Paul Valery, Thomas Mann, Dostoievski), raspunde "provocarilor" critice la adresa stiintei formulate de Georg Steiner, Umberto Eco, C.Noica, Gabriel Liiceanu sau Mihai Sora, comenteaza retrospectiv un pasionant dialog din 1973 intre doi viitori exilati: poeta Gabriela Melinescu si matematicianul Ciprian Foias, discuta evolutia "morfologica" a personajului teatral de la Shakespeare la Beckett, dimensiunile multiple ale universului s.f. sau legaturile structurale dintre fizica moderna si noul roman francez, pentru ca in capitolul final ("Calculatorul si studiul literaturii") sa "acceseze" cateva dintre cele mai pasionante dezbateri din stiinta, filozofia si teoria literara internationala a ultimelor decenii, intr-o tentativa mereu reinnoita de a cauta "zona translucida" a matematicii, in care disciplinele "umane" si cele "reale" se intalnesc si se fecundeaza reciproc. Erudita si clara, alcatuita modular din secvente scurte, placuta la lectura, cartea dezvolta o teorie culturala conectiva, punand in relatie istoria stiintelor exacte cu istoria literaturii, a filozofiei si a artei.Dimensiunea analitica e umanizata atat prin spectacolul interpretarilor cat si prin elementele de autobiografie intelectuala: capitolul despre Sorin Alexandrescu si "identitatea globala", dar mai ales tulburatoarele pagini memorialistice despre contradictoriul Ion Barbu in anii '40 au semnificatia unor confesiuni in oglinda, a unor reflectii despre propria identitate. O identitate dinamica, larg integratoare, orientata impotriva opozitiilor exclusiviste, a segregationismelor si a "extremelor" de orice fel.

C.M. (Carmen Musat) ("Solomon Marcus - o personalitate de frontiera", in "Observator cultural", nr.23(280), 4-10 august 2005, p.15): Extrem de documentat, erudit si analitic, chiar si atunci cand recurge la abordari sintetice, S.M. are darul de a pune in lumina, prin conexiuni inedite si provocatoare, aspecte de regula ocultate in abordarile monodisciplinare. Promotor al "globalizarii cognitive", miscandu-se cu egala competenta in spatiul stiintelor exacte si in cel al literaturii si artei, S.M. nu ocoleste temele dificile, aflate la interferenta mai multor tipuri de discurs, de la discursul stiintelor cognitive la cel al stiintelor limbajului, de la discursul filozofic la cel matematic si la cel al teoreticianului literar. Substantiala si informata, fara sa fie arida, "Intalnirea extremelor" readuce in prim-plan o personalitate de prim rang a culturii romane, pe nedrept aflata intr-un con de umbra" Irina Mavrodin (in "Secolul 21", nr.11-12, 2004 - 1-3, 2005, p.244-247): "Intalnirea extremelor" este, in raport cu intreaga opera a lui Solomon Marcus, o adevarata summa, o carte de capatai pentru orice spirit interesat de relatia dintre stiintele grele si literatura si arta. E un adevarat "manual", in sensul superior al termenului, care va forma in continuare, si in mod tot mai vizibil, o importanta directie de gandire printre contemporanii nostri si cei care ne vor urma".

Marcus's articles of Real Analysis were reviewed in "Mathematical Reviews", "Zentralblat fur Mathematik", "Referativnyi Jurnal", Bulletin signaletique" and other journals, by authors such as: J.Aczel, G.Aumann, F.Bagemihl, E.F.Beckenbach, L.M.Blumenthal, R.P.Boas, Jr., F.F.Bonsall, A.M.Bruckner, G.Bruns, R.C.Buck, L.Cesari, S.Cinquini, E.J.Cogan, A.Csaszar, F.Cunningham, Jr., M.M.Day, H.Delange, J.Deny, A.G.Djvarsheishvili, Y.N.Dowker, A.Ja.Dubovitzki,. P.Dubreil, G.M.Fihtengolc, F.Flohr, W.C.Fox, A.Froda, A.L.Garkavi, F.W.Gehring, L.Gillman, S.Ginsburg, L.Giuliano, A.N.Glivich, C.Goffman, R.S.Guter, I.Halperin, F.I.Harshiladze, U.S.Haslam-Johnes, O.Haupt, T.H.Hildebrand, R.L.Jeffery, F.B.Jones, F.A.Kabakov, Ju.Kazmin, J.H.B.Kemperman, P.G.Kogonija, A.A.Koniushkov, K.Krickeberg, M.Kuczma, L.D.Kudriavcev, G.Kurepa, B.K.Lahiri, I.Langenbach, L.Lesieur, J.S.Lipinski, E.R.Lorch, G.Marinescu, Ju.T.Medvedev, E.Moldovan, W.Nef, J.C.Oxtoby, A.S.Parhomenko, C.Pauc, V.I.Petrov, M.Petrovskaja, S.Phakadze, J.Popken, R.M.Redheffer, M.Reghis, A.Revuz, J.Ridder, P.I.Romanovski, R.A.Rosenbaum, A.Rosenthal, G.Scorza Dragoni, R.Sikorski, G.H.Sindalovski, B.S.Sodnomov,T.P.Srinivasan, S.Stoilow, A.A.Stoljar, D.A.Storwick, P.Szusz, R.Theodorescu, H.P.Thielman, G.P.Tolstov, W.R.Transue, V.M.Tsodyks, K.Urbanik, B.Van Rootselaar, T.Viola, L.de Vito, L.C.Young, D.A.Zaharov, L.Zajicek. This list includes many of the most important authors in the field of Real Analysis in the period from 1930 to 1975; some of them were or became classics of the field.

Articles in the field of languages were reviewed in the known review journals of Mathematics, but also in the review journals of Computer Science, Information Retrieval and Linguistics, typical in this respect being LLBA Language and Language Behavior Abstracts, edited at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Center for Research on Language and Language Behavior. The list of the authors of these reviews includes Y.Bar-Hillel, D.B.Benson, A.D.Booth, A.Borgida, R.L.Dobrushin, H.P.Edmundson, K.M.Fishman, A.Gladkii, R.N.Goss, H.Jurgensen, O.S.Kulagina, J.Kunze, M.V.Lomkovskaja, M.Novotny, G.Paun, P.Sgall.

Other opinions

Rosa del Conte (Enciclopedia Italiana 1961-1978, Quarta Appendice PL-Z Istituto della Encicl. Ital. fondata da G.Treccani, Roma, 1981, p. 243): Benche, il tributo, che persino un critico come Calinescu ha pagato alle direttive politiche, continue a essere sollecitato, lesegesi dei migliori si e rimessa sul solco di una tradizione che va da Maiorescu a Lovinescu, riscattando il primato del criterio assiologico, da imporre col ricorso agli strumenti letterari che alla critica sono propri, anche i pui moderni, come la linguistica matematica, che ha in S.Marcus un antesignano e un maestro.

Jean-Pierre Descles ("Mathematiques, Informatique et Sciences Humaines", Paris, no.103, 1988, p.5): Connu pour ses importants travaux d'algebre appliquee a l'etude analytique des langues, Solomon Marcus est un des savants les plus qualifies pour decrire ce nouveau domaine que, dans l'aire anglo-saxone, on appelle Mathematical Linguistics.

Umberto Eco ("A semiologia da um salto de quantidade". In "Semiologia do teatro", Ed.Perspectiva, Sao Paulo, 1988, p.17-21; Portuguese translation of an Italian text from 1974): A curioso que o maior numero de aplicacoes matematicas a uma linguagem (depois da verbal) esteja se verificando cum o teatro, e penso no trabalho dos estudiosos rumenos, Solomon Marcus a frente de todos. Justamente devido a dispersividade signica que e proprio do teatro, devido a necessidade de encontrar algoritmos que estabelecam ordem entre tantos niveis aparentemente desconexos [...].

Marius Iosifescu (in Joseph Gani (ed) "The Craft of Probabilistic Modelling", Springer, New York, 1986): In the second year, the calculus course was given by Marcus, who, following his research interests, oriented it towards real functions. From Marcus, I learnt to ask How do we know in mathematical analysis and consequently how to ask and answer mathematical questions. As a result, I was able to do my first piece of original mathematical work. Professor Marcus was my first and, unfortunately, last supervisor.

Viacheslav V.Ivanov ("The contemporary science and the theater" (in Russian) in the journal TEATR, Moscow, 1977, no.8): [...] rumanskii matematik S.Marcus, kotorii okolo desjati let nazad nachal raboty v etoi oblasti, v nedavno napechatannom obzore naschityvaet bolee tridcati specialnyh matematicheskih teatro-vedcheskih issledovanii, posvyuschennyh etoi probleme za poslednie gody. Kak i v drugih sluchajah primenenija matematicheskie metodov k issledovaniu iskustva, poka eto rechi-idet ob otnositelno skromnyh dostijeniah, kasajuschihsia naibolee javnyh vneshnih primet hudojestvennoi formy.

Roman Jakobson (interview on the X-th International Congress of Linguists, Bucharest, 1967; in "Lumea", 7 sept. 1967, p.19): -Care este opinia Dvs. cu privire la traditia scolii romanesti de lingvistica si la activitatea ei in prezent? -"Indraznete si originale au fost comunicarile de lingvistica si lingvistica matematica aplicate la poetica. M-as putea referi la "Probleme de poetica algebrica" (prof.univ. Solomon Marcus) si la "Matricea generatoare de ritmuri si structurile verbale ale frazei poematice" (Mihai Nasta).

O.S.Kulagina, I.A.Melciuk (Avtomaticeski perevod: Kratkaja istorija, Sovremennoe sostojanie, vozmojnye perspektivy, in Avtomaticeskii perevod (eds. O.S.Kulagina, I.A.Melciuk), Izd. Progress, Moskva, 1971, p.6 and p.82): Na baze sistem pervogo pokolenija vozinkal i nekotorye teoreticeskie raboty, naprimer teoretiko-mnojestvennaja model O.S.Kulagina (Kulagina 1958), polucivshaja dalneishee razvitie v rabotah A.V.Gladkogo (naprimer, Gladkii, 1964), S.Markusa, M.Novotnogo [...]

Gheorghe Mihoc (Ateneu, decembrie 1972, p.14): Solomon Marcus, profesor la Univ. din Bucuresti, a publicat studii remarcabile in aceasta directie (este vorba de cercetarea matematica a literaturii) (Contemporanul, nr.13 (1690), 30 III 1979, p.8): Continuator, dupa cum insusi afirma, al ideilor lui Servien, Solomon Marcus a creat in tara noastra, dupa cum e bine cunoscut, o remarcabila scoala in lingvistica si poetica matematica.

Octav Onicescu ("Metode noi si probleme de perspectiva ale cercetarii stiintifice, Ed. Academiei, Bucuresti, 1971, p.149): permiteti doua cuvinte despre ultima conferinta, aceea a colegului Solomon Marcus (despre "metoda stiintelor pilot") care trebuie inainte de orice laudata intr-un fel deosebit pentru calitatea sa literara, pentru calitatea sa filozofica si pentru bogatia de informatii pe care ne-a adus-o.

M.P.Schutzenberger (in "On the algebraic theory of automata", draft): It is, however, questions of formal languages (another name for the parts of a free monoid) which occupy the greatest number of people and which, owing to the attention of Backus, Naur or Vauquois, Hayes or Revzin, Marcus or Benzecri, confer on our small domain a trust we should not like to fail.

Cesare Segre (in "A Semiotic Landscape", Proceedings of the First Congress of the International Association for Semiotic Studies (eds. S.Chatman et al.), Mouton, The Hague, 1979, p.252-257): Nous avons eu ici la presentation de contributions remarquables a cet argument, soit en ayant recours a la theorie de l'action pour decrire les evenements d'un recit, soit en ayant recours a des classifications de type logique-mathematique, toujours par l'ecole tres active de Solomon Marcus.

D'Arco Silvio Avalle (interview by Marin Mincu, Romania Literara, 27 iulie 1978, p.19): -Ce credeti despre reprezentantii semiologiei romanesti? As putea sa-l numesc aici pe Solomon Marcus, pe care l-am cunoscut la Urbino si caruia i-am admirat probitatea stiintifica, precum si competenta si modernitatea orientarii metodologice.

Gheorghe Vranceanu ("Magazin", 22 august 1974, p.2): [...] tara noastra este unanim recunoscuta atat ca un centru al geometriei diferentiale si al teoriei functiilor complexe si al spatiilor analitice cat si ca un centru al lingvisticii matematice si al algebrei abstracte.

Gheorghe Zamfir ("Lumina naiului" (dedicata lui Solomon Marcus), in "Dincolo de sunet" - Au dela du son, traduit par Andreea Dobrescu-Warodin et Paul Miclau. Ed.Eminescu, Bucuresti, 1978, prefata Cella Delavrancea, p.46, 48, 50 - versiune franceza "Lumiere de la flute de Pan", p.47, 49, 51): Lumina ochiului nai / s-a prelungit lucie si sfioasa, / pe buza dealului de plai, / pe buza cea de sus intoarsa / catre tub. / Sunet firav de bolta seaca / si trestie avida de tremur ragusit / si fibra-n romb / tentacular si mat. / Atingerea ma doare inca / la mii de grade / ce-au topit / suflarea. / Cu tubul imi soptesc in Do, / Un Re diez ce suna fals, / se-acorda cu natura, / E suflu, / geamat, / cant, / durere, / crampei de radacina / ce-a azvarlit / suflarea de lumina, / lucie si sfioasa, / ce-a-ntors din deal / pe buza, o bolta / seaca si avida / de tremur ragusit? / S-a rupt un sunet, / prelungit pe coasta. / S-au rupt un milion de sunete / ce-au innadit un cor de naiuri, / ce-a condamnat tulpina / cu prea multa seva. / Un Re major se muta-n La./ Bemolul apei / altereaza cheia / ce-a deschis o poarta / spre adancuri / Nucleul de pamant, / ars la radacina, / a-nfipt un dinte nou / de tub si de lumina. / Acord in romb, mat cu tentacul, / intrebator la rezolvari / si salturi deocheate. / Nucleu de apa-n tub / si de spuma seaca / ce-a dantuit, / peretii rotundului arzand. / Sarutul se sfasie-n fibra clocotita, / Lumina ochiului din nai, / se mai prelinge inca / lucie si sfioasa, / pe unda apelor ce curg din plai, / pe buze arzande, / fara cale-ntoarsa ...(Neuchatel, 8 febr. 1978).

Gheorghe Tomozei ("Lauda geniului romanesc", Informatia Bucurestiului ,anul 26, nr.7984, 25 mai 1979, p.1): (comentariu la cartea "Romani celebri" (Ed.Dacia, Cluj) de Romulus Balaban): Adevarate revelatii, paginile stralucitilor Vasile Florescu si Solomon Marcus.

Hayward Alker (profesor M.I.T.: convorbire cu Dinu Dragomirescu, Perspectivele modelelor globale, Revista Economica 5, 1 febr. 1980, p.22): Exista de asemenea o legatura intelectuala intre Institutul de Tehnologie din Massachusetts (M.I.T.) la care predau eu si scoala romaneasca de lingvistica si poetica matematica. Apreciem foarte mult, de exemplu, activitatea profesorului Solomon Marcus de aplicare a unor formalizari de tip Chomsky, activitate care mi se pare extrem de promitatoare pentru cercetarile viitoare asupra posibilitatilor si limitelor sistemelor politice.

Iorgu Iordan (in cartea lui Valeriu Mangu "De vorba cu Iorgu Iordan". Editura Minerva, 1982, p.199): Da, intr-adevar, cartea (Poetica matematica) este foarte valoroasa, mai ales in ceea ce priveste, zic eu, prezentarea metodelor matematice de investigatie in literatura.

Marin V.Popescu (Viata studenteasca, anul 26, nr.13(881), 31 martie 1982, p.2): Citesc cu mari satisfactii serialul profesorului Solomon Marcus [...] (este vorba de serialul "Ecuatii").

Virgil Ierunca (Radio Europa Libera 18 iunie 1982, emisiunea "Actualitatea romaneasca", orele 19.25-19.40, 23.25-23.40, despre "Caiete critice", nr.10): Limbajele liricii contemporane sunt analizate de cercetatori consacrati ca Solomon Marcus, Nicolae Steinhardt si Gheorghe Grigurcu, dar si de nume mai putin frecvente, ca Liviu Papadima, Crisu Dascalu, ... , initiativa pe cat de indrazneata pe atat de necesara. Pentru ca nu e lipsit de importanta sa-l vedem de pilda pe S.M. discutandu-l pe Marin Sorescu cu referinte care merg la Leibniz, intr-un context in care S.M. isi propune in primul rand sa delimiteze functia explicativa a parodiei. Un critic de factura traditionala ar vedea desigur intr-o asemenea intreprindere fie un abuz de metoda, fie o extrapolare ilarianta. Si n-are dreptate; pacatuieste prin ingustime sau confort intelectual. Asemenea eseuri sunt bine venite tocmai pentru a culpabiliza critica de limitele care o pot pandi in cazul cand ar refuza dialogul cu disciplinele colaterale. Exista desigur primejdia ca unele dintre acestea sa instaureze un adevarat terorism intelectual. Ne gandim mai ales la semiotica si la psihanaliza, pentruca marxismul a murit aproape pretutindeni. Cand un critic literar autentic vegheaza la ceea ce poate primi sau refuza, primejdia nu exista. Nici Eugen Simion, nici Nicolae Manolescu, nici Livius Ciocarlie, nici Eugen Negrici nu si-au pierdut identitatea, pentru simplul motiv ca au ascultat metodic sau mai putin metodic mesajele reductioniste ale unor discipline cu un vadit suflu de imperialism intelectual. Dintr-un eseu ca acesta al lui Solomon Marcus, critica literara are de primit imbolduri si ipoteze, sugestii murmurate, indicii neortodoxe, dar prin asta deschizatoare de sens. Felul in care Solomon Marcus surprinde de pilda intr-un poem de Sorescu antinomiile fecunde ale limbajului poetic, capacitatea acestuia de a inventa o coerenta globala a metaforelor care, luate separat, cad in incoerente locale, deschid o intreaga gama de reconstructie viitoare a textului, dupa care lectura intertextuala dobandeste un suport necesar ... Orice lectura depinde de text, dar alegerea uneia dintre dezvoltarile posibile presupune o idee prealabila a ipotezelor textuale. In ultima instanta, lectura depinde nu numai de text, ci si de toate lecturile noastre anterioare, dupa cum textul insusi este tributar lecturilor prealabile ale autorului. Asa se explica importanta fenomenelor de intertextualitate [...] (este vorba de eseul "Functia explicativa a parodiei" de S.M.).

Constanta Buzea (Viata studenteasca, a doua saptamana din ianuarie 1982): Acest numar unic se dedica profesorului Solomon Marcus, la implinirea a cinci ani de la debutul rubricii "Ecuatii"): Omagiu: Ceremonie intelectuala, infrigurarea urcarii treptelor/ pana la noi, urmand un program altul decat umbra,/ umbra care si ea rasare si suie pe zid, in acelasi ritm,/ cu parca acelasi pas, totusi, omul concret pe scara concreta,/respiratia lui eliberand un abur in ger, e altceva, cand// si gerul face epoca iesindu-si din matca, din anotimp,/ fiind un bun insotitor al gandurilor, al nostru suie.// Umbra, spuneam, ca o parere, ca un vis cand soarele rasare iarna/ si-si trece prin geamuri picioarele de aur rece. Soarele numai?/ Durata si ceremonie, ochii mangaind si linistind cuvintele,ideile,/ dar e o liniste in neliniste, o aparenta, un paravan, un scut,/cufundare in cubul de aer al cladirii, cu peretii ei de var sarac,/ cu saraci peretii ei goi, var uscat, var incenusat.// Ce bine s-ar camufla totul in spatele unei biblioteci langa care/ ar sui si o scara inalta, periculoasa, ce bine sus-jos, jos-sus/ circuland, umbra n-ar mai insoti noapte de noapte ceremonialul, si ziua/ soarele nu si-ar mai adaposti printre noi picioarele aurite.

Cornel Ungureanu (Orizont, 17 Octombrie 1986): lectura noua a unor studii aparute in ultima vreme il poate indemna pe cronicar sa mediteze asupra unor autori de valoare deosebita care nu sunt la moda. Poate, zic eu, urcand mai sus, personalitati de rangul lui Adrian Marino sau Solomon Marcus nu vor fi la moda tocmai fiindca stiinta lor e arida, rasfatata rar de placutele brize ale melancoliilor. Ei nu viseaza cu fruntea pe umarul cititorilor si nu ii cer dreptul la confraternitate. Adevarurile lor sunt aspre si inaccesibile celui lipsit de ucenicia severa a stiintelor asociate. Bibliografiile marilor cercetatori de aiurea le inregistreaza numele la loc de cinste (ignorand cu aceeasi dezinvoltura alte nume, prea iubite), cinstindu-le contributia; ale noastre ii sicaneaza. Cu atat mai mare e satisfactia atunci cand descoperim rodnicia actiunii lor in cartile mai tinerilor savanti...

Mihai Zamfir (Viata Romaneasca, anul 32, nr.6, iunie 1979, p.77-78): Aceasta permanenta a lingvisticii in cercetarea literara nu a trecut fara urme: unele benefice, altele limitative. La capitolul beneficului se poate mentiona actuala dezvoltare prodigioasa a poeticii matematice si, in general, a poeticii pe care am putea-o numi cantitativa. Teoria modelelor, analiza matematica, utilizarea masurilor exacte pentru evaluarea estetica au capatat o forta de nebanuit. Cel mai cunoscut poetician-matematician contemporan, profesorul Solomon Marcus, devine campionul acestei perspective stiintifice si, dupa cativa ani de navigatie solitara, isi impune adevarul, reusind sa creeze o scoala de poetica matematica. Pe harta lumii, Bucurestii au ajuns un centru a gandirii cantitative in poetica; ar fi deajuns sa citam studiile lui Solomon Marcus si Mihai Dinu pentru a ne da seama ca subtilitatea interpretarii datelor nu ramane cu nimic datoare celui mai speculativ critic. Dar incredibilul s-a produs sub ochii nostri si dimensiunile lui pot fi cu greu realizate: concluziile poeticii matematice devin universal verificabile, iar descrierea valorii textului (operatie pe care o incearca de mai bine de un secol critica moderna) iese din preistorie pentru a se incadra istoriei perceptibile: "Semiotica folclorului" (1975), numarul special al revistei "Poetics" din 1976 inchinat poeticii romanesti inseamna o confirmare dincolo de orice discutii. Partida inceputa in urma cu aproape doua decenii incepe sa fie castigata la proportii nevisate.

Virgil Ierunca (Emisiunea "Teze si antiteze la Paris", radio Europa Libera, 28 martie 1987, orele 22.30-23.00, convorbire cu Monica Lovinescu si Bujor Nedelcovici): Un aspect bun al culturii romanesti este filosofia. Dintre filosofii afirmati inca inainte de razboi, mentionam pe Constantin Noica si pe Anton Dumitriu. Dupa razboi ii avem pe Mihai Sora si pe Solomon Marcus si, mai ales, pe filosofii mai tineri Gabriel Liiceanu si Andrei Plesu, care fac cinste filosofiei romanesti.

Mircea Scarlat ("Ochiul si microscopul", Viata Romaneasca, anul 82, nr.5, mai 1987, p.80-83): Dan Barbilian era convins ca se poate vorbi de un umanism modern, de un sistem complet de cunostinte capabil sa formeze omul, bazat insa pe matematica, deosebit de umanismul clasic, fundat pe studiul limbii si al literaturii.[...] Unul dintre acesti umanisti moderni (foarte rari, deocamdata) este, fara indoiala, Solomon Marcus, fost student al lui Dan Barbilian. Curiozitatea vie, marea disponibilitate perceptiva si informatia la zi in domeniul artistic fac din acest profesor universitar de matematici unul din cei mai incitanti comentatori ai creatiei contemporane. Reprezentand o pozitie extrema in abordarea literaturii, S.M. ocupa, in peisajul nostru cultural, o pozitie excentrica, ceea ce face ca interventiile sale sa fie spectaculoase pentru unii, iritante pentru altii. Dar statutul sau de floare rara face ca interventiile lui sa fie totdeauna interesante.

Mircea Mihaies (Viata studenteasca anul 30, nr.20(1148), 20 mai 1987, p.8): S.M. reprezinta la noi un avatar tarziu al enciclopedismului. Cartile sale, sinteze pe teme date (Paradoxul, Timpul) ori pe teme imperechiate (Modele algebrice ale limbii, Matematica frumusetii limbii, Poetica matematica [...]) sunt, in felul lor, secvente dintr-un imaginabil, in acest secol, one man show. [...] Viziunea totalizanta, asupra unui subiect, dar si asupra lumii, conceperea cartii ca loc geometric al celor mai de neinchipuit tendinte ale spiritului devin, in acest caz, aproape o obligatie profesionala. S.M. face din ea chiar ceva mai mult: o arta care urmeaza a-si gasi stiinta. Si, cine stie, constiinta de sine.

Vasile Popovici (Orizont, "Utile dulci", Orizont, 49(1084), 4 dec. 1987, p.2): Prezenta intr-o cultura a unei personalitati de formatia lui S.M. e nepretuita. Specialist, in adevaratul sens al cuvantului, in cateva discipline fundamentale (matematica, lingvistica, semiotica, poetica); informat in domeniul filosofiei; bine orientat, ca amator pasionat si superior, in privinta fenomenului artistic; in sfarsit, fapt el insusi surprinzator la acest om atat de temeinic, la curent cu tot ce misca-n presa literara romaneasca [...], iata gama stiintifica si culturala pe care el o controleaza. Remarcabila aici nu e totusi formatia sa pluri- sau interdisciplinara, ci sansa, deopotriva a sa si a noastra, ca distanta dintre disciplinele stapanite sa fie daca nu maxima (cum cred ca e), oricum foarte mare, incat legaturile ce se stabilesc sa devina si mai pretioase. Fiecare noua carte a lui S.M. (sa ne amintim de "Paradoxul" si Timpul") coreleaza rezultate de varf in stiinte ce altminteri se ignora cu desavarsire. Fiecare noua carte a sa poate fi deci privita ca o schita a paradigmelor epistemice contemporane [...]. Aceasta arheologie a savoir-ului pe care S.M. o intreprinde in straturile profunde ale prezentului, are o importanta de prim ordin nu numai pentru stiintele implicate in raza cercetarii sale, carora le indica prin comparatie unde au ajuns, ci si (sau poate mai ales) pentru informarea filosofilor, chemati sa elaboreze un sistem universal al sistemelor particulare de cunoastere.

Alexandru Stefanescu (Romania literara, anul 21, nr.42, 13 octombrie 1988, p.4): Solomon Marcus conecteaza literatura cu ceea ce este considerat in mod obisnuit polul ei opus, matematica, si in felul acesta declanseaza arcul voltaic al unor idei noi.

Toma Albu (Radio Bucuresti, programul 2, 27 martie 1987, orele 14.30-15.30): Gandindu-ma la anii de studentie, doua nume de profesori imi vin in minte: Ionel Bucur si Solomon Marcus [...] Prin modul impecabil si fascinant in care ne tinea cursul, profesorul meu de analiza matematica Solomon Marcus ne-a dezvaluit adevarata frumusete a matematicii. Profesorul Marcus m-a indrumat in realizarea primei mele lucrari stiintifice.

Constantin Niculescu (Scanteia Tineretului, 18 aprilie 1968, p.3): Realizasem pentru seminar o nota matematica. Asistentul mi-a cerut-o si ... peste cateva zile eram invitat in cabinetul de lucru al dascalului, pe care il consider maestrul meu: prof.dr.docent SOLOMON MARCUS. Mi s-a deschis nu o usa, ci o inima.

Cristian Voica (interviu acordat lui Sebastian Andru, in "Evrika", Centrul Universitar Bucuresti, 1988): Dintre magistrii carora le pastrez o stima deosebita, te rog sa notezi: prof.dr.docent Solomon Marcus, la cursul caruia exista mereu o mica problema teoretica neelucidata, propusa spre studiu studentilor (in scopul dezvoltarii creativitatii si sub acest aspect) [...]

George Iorga (Ateneu, no.5 (222), mai 1988, p.10): De cate ori l-am auzit vorbind pe autorul Poeticii Matematice despre marile probleme ale culturii secolului XX, am avut, de fiecare data, sentimentul calmului valorilor care se impun imediat, fara nici un fel de cenzura si fara sa fii macar pregatit sa le accepti, sentimentul ca lumea ideilor, atat de labila in devenirea ei, inghetata intre cuvintele pledoariei sale pro domo si se lasa deslusita la suprafata si, apoi, in profunzimile ei. Secretul acestei popularitati? Spiritul persuasiv-oratoric, noutatea ideilor si a limbajului, fascinatia pe care ti-o provoaca jocul sau in mai multe registre ale stiintei si culturii, faptul ca el stie a priori ca te convinge ... De cate ori il aud pe Solomon Marcus vorbind, mi se pare ca traiesc cu o intensitate dubla viata [...] si-mi vin in memorie [...] marile versuri eminesciene: "Nu e pacat/ Ca sa se lepede/ Clipa cea repede/ Ce ni s-a dat ?"

Victor Vianu (interviu cu, de Irina Atanasiu), in PC REPORT, Calculatoare personale, nr.45, iunie 1996, p.18. Professor, Univ of California at San Diego: Ceea ce am apreciat cel mai mult din pregatirea primita in Romania a fost solidul fundament matematic, incluzand anumite aspecte ale informaticii teoretice, ca de exemplu teoria limbajelor formale. Primul articol l-am scris sub indrumarea lui Solomon Marcus si experienta sa fost foarte stimulanta.

Nicolae Mihaileanu ("Autobiografie", Editura Ex Ponto, Constanta, 1998,406 pagini, p.319): Solomon Marcus, fostul meu student eminent, a depus o activitate stiintifica foarte bogata si multilaterala. Specialist in analiza, in lingvistica matematica. Om modest, pe cat de capabil. Relatiile noastre corecte si de simpatie.

Gheorghe Paun (interviu luat de Cici-Iordache Adam) in revista LOCURI DE MUNCA, anul II, nr.18, 15-21 ianuarie 2003, pp.1, 16-17): Sunt realizat profesional datorita unei suite de intamplari norocoase si a unui mentor extraordinar [...] In facultate, doream sa ajung profesor la Curtea de Arges, la liceul unde invatasem - Vlaicu Voda - liceu puternic si aproape de comuna mea natala. Nici asta n-am ajuns, ca urmare a intalnirii in anul V cu profesorul Solomon Marcus. Unul dintre cei mai cunoscuti international matematicieni, lingvisti, informaticieni romani. Da, un mare profesor, care putea sa fascineze un tanar... Ce admirati cel mai mult la dansul? Fascinatia exista inca - este un subiect foarte complex. Ce admiram, ce admir ? Deschiderea, de pilda, devotamentul pentru profesie,altruismul, generozitatea stiintifica. Lucrarile profesorului Marcus sunt pline de probleme deschise pentru cel care le citeste, de idei care pot fi preluate si continuate. Dar foarte important era pentru mine in vremea aceea, si pentru multi altii, atmosfera de lucru, climatul stiintific pe care profesorul il creea in jurul sau. Oferea generos idei, materiale bibliografice, incurajari, promovari. Stiu multi colegi care de-atunci, si chiar inaintea mea, au inceput o cariera stralucita datorita profesorului Solomon Marcus.

Toma Pavel (in "Romania literara", nr.19, 18-24 mai 1993, p.14-15): Da, intr-adevar, imi amintesc chiar de demascarea burghezului Ferdinand de Saussure in anii aceia. Numai ca existau anumiti oameni care m-au ajutat mult, cum ar fi profesorul Emanuel Vasiliu, care se ocupa de gramatica transformationala si logica moderna, sau Solomon marcus, Maria Manoliu Manea si Alexandru Niculescu, de la care de asemenea am invatat o multime.

Bogdan Suceava ("O crima romaneasca", Contemporanul-Ideea europeana, nr.40, 19 octombrie 2000, p.3): Primul meu semestru la facultate a fost extrem de interesant. Am avut parte de un curs de analiza matematica predat de Prof. Solomon Marcus.

Cristian Calude ("Teorema ca stare sufleteasca", in "Contemporanul", anul XIV, nr.5 (614), mai 2003, p.32, grupaj dedicat lui Gr.C.Moisil): Inainte de plecare, Profesorul mi-a lasat mostenire o problema si un minunat indrumator stiintific. Problema a fost punctul de plecare al cercetarilor mele de teoria calculabilitatii si complexitatii. Cu Academicianul Solomon Marcus mi-am sustinut teza de doctorat si am continuat sa lucrez neintrerupt pana azi.

Basarab Nicolescu (interviu realizat de Mircea Bertea, "Convorbiri literare", iunie 2003, nr 6 (90), 5-10, p.10): Si in Franta, in Italia, in alte tari ale lumii, si ma bucur sa observ ca acum si in Romania ideile transdiscip-linare incep sa patrunda, gratie, sper, si actiunii dumneavoastra si a actiunii mai multor cercetatori care s-au manifestat in Romania in acest domeniu, si as cita in primul rand pe marele meu prieten si membru de multa vreme al CIRET, academicianul Solomon Marcus, care are de multa vreme o semnificativa activitate in aceasta directie.

Mircea Trifu ("Centenar Miron Nicolescu", Gazeta matematica, anul XXI, nr.4, 2003, p.274): La analiza matematica am avut un ful de asi: in anul I - Nicolae Dinculeanu, in anul II - Solomon Marcus, in anul III - Miron Nicolescu.

Tudor Zamfirescu (dedication, "The strange aspect of most compacta", Journal of the Japanese Mathematical Society): To Solomon Marcus,/ the best of my teachers,/for his Real Functions/ with wonderful features.

Michael Dediu ("Gheorghe Vranceanu si cibernetica", in Revista Fundatiei Acad.Prof. Gh.Vranceanu, anul 1, nr.2, decembrie 2000, p.8): Doresc de asemenea sa-mi exprim recunostinta pentru importantele contributii la formarea mea, fata de extraordinarii profesori ai acestei mari Facultati de Matematica a Univesitatii din Bucuresti, si anume prof.Theodor Hangan, prof. Kostake Teleman si acad.prof. Solomon Marcus.

Alexandru T.Balaban ("Mathematical chemistry", Fundamenta Informaticae 64, 2005, 1/4, p.1): Professor Solomon Marcus is not only an eminent mathematician, but also a prolific writer and a person with a vast culture and encyclopedic mind.

Alexander Okhotin, Kai Salomaa ("Contextual grammars with uniform sets of trajectories", Fundamenta Informaticae 64, 2005, 1/4, p.341): in the seminal paper "Contextual grammars", Revue Roumaine de Math. Pures et Appl. 14, 1969, 1525-1534, Solomon Marcus introduced contextual grammars as a generative device without auxiliary symbols to model linguistic operations of adjoining contexts. Contextual grammars have turned out to be a fundamental model also in formal language theory and many variants have been investigated. In particular, as observed in A.Ehrenfeucht, Gh.Paun, G.Rozenberg, "Contextual grammars and formal languages", in "Handbook of formal languages", vol.2, G.Rozenberg and A.Salomaa, eds., Springer Verlag, 1997, 237-293, contextual grammars represent a major contribution to our understanding of pure grammars, that is, grammars that do not employ nonterminal symbols.

Lech Polkowski, Maria Semeniuk-Polkowska ("On rough set logics based on similarity relations", Fundamenta Informaticae 64, 2005, 1/4, p.379): The analysis of the role tolerance relations may play in machine learning based on rough set-theoretic ideas was carried out by Professor Solomon Marcus in His seminal paper, written during His stay in Warsaw in December of the year 1994.

Mihai Zamfir ("Cel care stie totul si inca ceva pe deasupra", Romania literara, anul 38, nr.12, 30 martie-5 aprilie 2005, p.7): Profesorul S.M. ramane unul dintre acei foarte putini mari savanti care si-au conservat intacta aspiratia universala.[...] Modul in care S.M. si-a apropiat literatura ramane ciudat: a descoperit la inceput, cu ajutorul matematicii, structura limbilor naturale; intr-o faza ulterioara, s-a apropiat (atat cat se poate apropia cineva cu mijloacele inteligentei) de ceea ce s-a numit intotdeauna "misterul poetic"; apoi a investigat o mare parte a domeniilor cunoasterii, a caror structura de baza e reprezentata de semne si de limbaj. Nu pretinde ca ar fi descifrat misterul poetic, dar stie ca, in orice caz, a tradus in limbaj rational o cantitate covarsitoare de false mistere. De la acelasi autor am invatat ca poetica matematica nu inseamna o poetica pur cantitativa, cum cred cei neinitiati, ci, din contra, o poetica unde imprevizibilul, inspiratia, inefabilul calinescian nu mai plutesc in vag, ci capata cifru. Opera stiintifica a lui S.M.are intinderea si dimensiunile specifice marilor autori enciclopedici. S-a compus de la inceput din lucrari neamendabile, rotunde, perfecte. Intre punctele de referinta reprezentate de faimoasa si inaugurala "Lingvistica matematica"(1963) si de "Poetica matematica" (1970, de analizele stralucite cuprinse in cartile deceniului noua ("Arta si stiinta", "Socul matematicii" ori "Inventie si descoperire"), se afla alte zeci de carti, monografii despre paradox si despre timp, in care cele mai variate domenii ale cunoasterii sunt parcurse cu o energie ce il aminteste pe Nicolae Iorga. Precum marele istoric, S.M. nu pare a avea complexe.[...]. Pentru un literat obisnuit, aprecierile si judecatile asupra literaturii enuntate de matematicieni poseda o greutate specifica apreciabila, deoarece vin dinspre partea "stiintei". Nu e vorba de o prejudecata, ci de experienta directa. Ceea ce Dan Barbilian ori Grigore Moisil au spus despre literatura, chiar daca sub forma paradoxala ori metaforica, pare concluzia unor indelungi meditatii inalt- Stiintifice, la care eu personal nu voi avea acces. In continuarea liniei Barbu-Moisil, nu-l vad decat pe S.M. Dovada staturii sale exceptionale o reprezinta proba simpla a unicatului; desi apare astazi citat in publicatiile de varf din cele cinci continente si desi a scris o intreaga biblioteca, el nu are, de fapt, discipoli, cu exceptia lui Mihai Dinu (exceptional la randul sau).[....]

Quotations and presentations in Dictionaries and Encyclopaedias of Mathematics, Cybernetics, Computer Science, Linguistics, Social Sciences,Aesthetics, Literature, Theater and Universal Encyclopedias

Marcus is quoted in:
- Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, vol.1, Reidel, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 1988, p.183-184;
- Encyclopaedia Kibernetiki, ed. V.M.Glushkov, vol.1, 1975, p.571; vol.2, 1975, p.603-605;
- The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (10 volumes), ed. in chief R.Asher, Pergamon Press, Oxford et al, 1994 (vol.2 p.869, 871);
- Jean Dubois, Mathe Giacomo, Louis Guespin, Chr.Marcellesi, J.P.Marcellesi, J.P.Merel: Dictionnaire de Linguistique et des Sciences du Langage, Larousse, Paris, 1994, LX- 514p. (p.XLIII);
- Computational Linguistics, eds. I.S.Batori, W.Lenders, W.Putschke, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin-New York, 1989 (An International Handbook on Computer Oriented Language Research and Applications), p.70, 72, 859);
- Dictionnaire de Linguistique (Jean Dubois,Mathe Giacomo, Louis Guespin, Christiane Marcellesi, Jan-Baptiste Marcellesi, Jean-Pierre Merel), Larousse, Paris, 1991 (p.XXX);
- Dictionary of Language and Linguistics (R.R.K.Hartmann, F.C.Stork), Applied Sci. Publ.London, 1972;
- Lexikon der Sprachwissenschaft (Hadumod Bussmann).Alfred Korner Verlag, Stuttgart (Kroners Taschenausgabe, Band 452), 1983 (p.20);
- Willy Bal-Jean Germain: Guide de Linguistique. Serie Pedagogique de l'Inst. de Ling. de Louvain-5. Eds. Peeters, Louvain, 1979, 108pp. (p.72);
- Moderne Linguistik: Terminologie/Bibliographie ein Handbuch und Nachschlagewerk auf der Basis der Generativ-Transformationellen Sprach Theorie. Teilband I: A-M (Werner Welte), Max Hueber Verlag 1 Auflage 1974 (p.83, 203; 336, 337); and Teilband II: N-Z, 1974, p.499, 590;
- Handbook der Linguistik (H. Janssen, H. Stammerjohann), Nymphenburger Verlag 1975 (p.20, 580);
- Linguistiches Worterbuch 1 (T.Lewandowski), Quelle & Meyer, Heidelberg, 1976 (p.141, 306, 307, 444); the same, part 3, p.959;
- Vocabulaire de la Linguistique (Jean-Francois Phelizon), Editions Roudil, Paris, 1976 (p.156, 157, 278);
- Current Trends in Linguistics (ed. Th.A.Sebeok) vol.IX, 1972 and vol.XII, 1974;
- Lexicon der Romanistichen Linguistik (hrsg G.Holtus et al) vol.III, Niemeyer, Tubingen, 1989;
- Tendences principales de la recherche dans les sciences sociales. Philosophie, dir.P.Ricoeur, Mouton, UNESCO, 1978;
- Enyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential, ed. Union of International Associations, Saur, Munchen, vol.II, 1986; vol.III, 1990-1991, p.436, 487;
- Patrice Pavis, Dictionnaire du Theatre, Editions Sociales, Paris, 1980 (p.241, 242, 385, 386, 459, 462);
- Manfred Pfister, The Theory and Analysis of Drama,Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, New York, 1988, p.17;
- Grand Larousse Encyclopedique, vol.II, Supplement, Ed.Larousse, Paris, 1969 (p.LXV);
- Encyclopaedia Universalis, vol.9, 1971, Paris (p.1057-1059) and vol.13, 1989, Paris, p.837;
- Brockhaus Enzyklopedie XVIIth improved ed. vol.12, MAI-MOS, Wiesbaden 1971 (p.255-256);
- Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd edition, vol.15, MacMillan, New York, London, 1977, p.568-569;
- Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 1961- Appendice IV, GE-PI. Istituto della Enciclopedia Italia, Roma, 1979, p.345-346;
- Enciclopedia Einaudi, vol.15, Torino, 1982 (p.23);
- Enciclopedia Italiana 1961-1978, Istituto della Encicl. Ital. Giovanni Trecenni, Append. IV PL-Z, Roma 1981 (p.243, 345, 346);
- Istoria lingvisticii romanesti (coord. Iorgu Iordan), Ed. Stiintifica, Bucuresti, 1978 (p.124, 144, 150, 155, 164-168,213-215, 229, 232, 237, 238, 241, 252-255);
- Dictionar de estetica generala (Gh.Achitei et al.), Editura Politica, Bucuresti, 1972);
- Histoire chronologique de la Roumanie (sous la direction de Const.C.Giurescu), Ed.Stiintifica, Bucuresti, 1976 (p.337, 344, 521);
- Istoria ilustrata a romanilor (Dinu C.Giurescu), Ed.Sport-Turism, Bucuresti, 1981 (p.586);
- Istoria stiintelor in Romania. Matematica, mecanica, astronomia. Ed.Academiei, Bucuresti, 1981 (p.6, 91, 97, 120, 121, 142, 165-167);
- Istoria stiintelor in Romania. Cibernetica. Ed. Academiei, Bucuresti, 1981 (p.45, 46, 122, 155, 186);
- Istoria stiintelor in Romania. Lingvistica, Editura Academiei, Bucuresti, 1975;
- Istoria stiintei si tehnicii in Romania. Date cronologice. Ed. Academiei, Bucuresti, 1985 (St.Balan, N.St.Mihailescu) (p.389, 416);
- Le Champ semiologique, perspectives internationales (dir.Andre Helbo), Ed. Complexe, Bruxelles, 1979 (p.B6, B27, B33, B44, C21);
- Semiotics, A Handbook on the Sign-Theoretic Foundations of Nature and Culture, eds. R.Posner, K.Robering, Th.A.Sebeok, vol.1, 1997, p.22, 79; vol.2, 1998, p.1614, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin-New York.

The concept of contextual grammar introduced by Marcus in 1969 is the object of a special article in the Supplement of vol.1 of the Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Kluwer, Dordrecht et al, 1998, p.198.

- Marcus is presented in "World Who's Who" in Science (first edition, ed. Allan G.Debus), Marquis Who's Who, Chicago, 1968, various editions of Dictionary of International Biography (Cambridge, England), Mic Dictionar Enciclopedic (Editura Stiintifica si Enciclopedica, Bucuresti, 1978), Istoria matematicii in Romania (by George St.Andonie), Editura Stiintifica, Bucuresti, vol.3, 1967; Dictionar de lingvisti si filologi romani (by J.Balacciu si R.Chiriacescu), Editura Albatros, Bucuresti, 1978; Istoria literaturii romane de la creatia populara la postmodernism (by Dumitru Micu), Editura Saeculum, Bucuresti, 2000; Handbook of Semiotics (by Winfried Noeth), Indiana University Press, Bloomington&Indianapolis, 1995; Handbuch der Semiotik, 2nd ed., vollstandig neu bearbeitete und erweiterte Auflage. J.B.Metzler, Stuttgart-Weimar, 2000; "Istoria literaturii romane de azi pe maine" 23 August 1944 - 22 Decembrie 1989 (by Marian Popa), vol.II, Fundatia Luceafarul, Bucuresti, 2001; Dictionarul etnologilor romani (by Iordan Datcu), Editura Orizont Enciclopedic, Bucuresti, 1999; Dictionarul scriitorilor romani (eds. Mircea Zaciu, Marian Papahagi, Aurel Sasu), vol.3, Editura Albatros, Bucuresti, 2001; Dictionarul literaturii romane etc.

Invited Author of Articles in Encyclopaedias of Computer Science, Linguistics and Semiotics

- Mathematical linguistics in Europe, in Current Trends in Linguistics (ed.Th.A.Sebeok), vol.IX, 1972, p.646-687, Mouton, The Hague.

- Linguistics as a Pilot Science, in Current Trends in Linguistics (ed.Th.A.Sebeok), vol.XII, 1974, p.2871-2887, Mouton, The Hague.

- Approches semiotiques en Roumanie, in Le Champ Semiologique, Perspectives Internationales (dir.Andre Helbo), Collection Creusets Ed.Complexe, Bruxelles, 1979, p.N1-N10.

- Semiotics and Formal Artificial Languages, in Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology (eds.Allen Kent, James G.Williams), vol.29, Supplement 14, Marcel Dekker, New York et al, 1994, p.393-405; also in Encyclopedia of Microcomputers (eds.Allen Kent, James G.Williams), vol.15, Marcel Dekker, New York et al, 1995, p.299-312.

- Semiotics and Mathematics, in Encyclopedic Dictionary of Semiotics (ed.Th.A.Sebeok), vol.II, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 1986, p.494-497 and (second edition), 1994.

- Contextual Grammars and Natural Languages, in Handbook of Formal Languages (eds.G.Rozenberg, A.Salomaa) vol.II, p.215-235, Springer, Berlin-New York, 1997.

Member of the Editorial Board or similar organisms of journals in the field of Mathematics, Computer Science, Linguistics, Poetics, and Semiotics

- Analele Universitatii Bucuresti, Mathematics-Computer Science (editor in chief)

- Cahiers de Linguistique Theorique et Appliquee, Bucharest (deputy editor in chief)

- Mathematical Reports (Bucuresti)

- Revue d'Analyse Numerique et Theorie de l'Approximation (Cluj-Napoca)

- Proceedings of the Romanian Academy (Bucharest)

- Zeitschrift fur Semiotik (Berlin)

- Foundations of Computing & Decision Sciences (Poznan)

- VISIO, la revue de l'Association Internationale de Semiotique Visuelle(Quebec)

- International Journal of Computer Mathematics (London)

- Bochum Publications in Evolutionary Cultural Semiotics

- Theoretical Linguistics (Bochum) (1970-2000)

- Poetics Today (Jerusalem)

- Secolul 20 (21) (Bucharest)

- Arhimede (Bucharest)

- Studii si Cercetari Lingvistice (Bucuresti)

- Revue Roumaine de Linguistique (Bucharest)

- Interdisciplinary Journal of Germanic Linguistics and Semiotic Analysis (Berkeley, USA)

- Grammars (Tarragona, Spain)

- Romanian Journal of Information Science and Technology (Bucharest)

- Fundamenta Informaticae (Warsaw)

- Eratosthene (Sion, Switzerland)

- Galaxia (Transdisciplinary Journal on Semiotics, Communication and Culture; Sao Paulo, Brazil)

- Advanced Studies in Mathematics & Logic. Polimetrica Publisher, Monza (near Milano), Italy (chief editor Sica Giandomenico)

- Zeitschrift fur Literaturwissenchaft und Linguistik (Siegen) (1970 -1994)

- Symmetry, Culture and Science (Budapest)

- Poetics (Amsterdam) (1971-1992)

- Bulletin International de Semiotique de l'Image (EIDOS) (Tours, France) (1989-1995)

- Analele Universitatii din Bacau, seria Matematica (2004 - )

- Analele Universitatii din Craiova,seria Matematica (2004 - )

- Ex Ponto (Constanta) (2003 - )

Also former member of the Editorial Board of Discrete Mathematics; Foundation of Control Engineering; International Computing Center Bulletin; Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing Bulletin; Revue Roumaine de Mathematiques Pures et Appliquees; Gazeta Matematica; Progresele Stiintei (Bucuresti)

Invited speaker at some international scientific Meetings

- International Conference of Discrete Mathematics, Dortmund University, 12-19 July, 2007.

- Sixth Congress of Romanian Mathematicians, Bucharest, 28 June - 4 July 2007.

- 9th World Congress of Semiotics, 11-17 June 2007, Helsinki and Imatra, Finland.

- Colocviu Marin Sorescu, Univ din Craiova, February 2007.

- Symmetry Festival 16-22 August 2006, Budapest.

- International Summer School for Semiotics and Structural Studies. Imatra, Finland, June 2006.

- International Summer School for Semiotics and Structural Studies(Imatra, Finland, June 11-19, 2005 - section of global semiotics).

- Semaine des sciences, 18-23 avril 2005, Bucarest-Timisoara-Iasi (organisee par l'Ambassade de France, l'Institut Francais de Bucarest etc).

- Japanese-Romanian Conference on Conflict Prevention and the Processes of Globalization and Regionalization. Black Sea University Foundation. International Centre for Research and Training. NGO in Consultative Status with ECOSOC/UN. Bucharest, Romania, 11-12 October 2004.

- German Theory Day on Formal Languages and their Applications to Natural Languages. Potsdam University, Institute of Informatics, 28-30 September 2004.

- Seminaire International "Penser l'Europe". Academie Roumaine, Institut Francais des Relations Internationales, 16-17 Septembre 2004.

- International Conference on Discrete Geometry, Eotvos Lorand Univ., Budapest, 30 June-2 July 2004 (dedicated to the 60th anniversary of Tudor Zamfirescu).

- International Summer School for Semiotic and Structural Studies, Imatra, Finland, June 3-9, 2004.

- Opening of the Third post-doctoral International Courses "Formal Languages and Applications", 22-25 March, 2004, Universitat Rovira I Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.

- Symmetry Festival 2003, 16-22 August 2003, Budapest, Hungary.

- Colocviu, Globalizarea culturala in conditiile Romaniei actuale, Universitatea "Ovidius", Constanta, 10-13 iulie, 2003.

- Colocviu, "Mai are un viitor literatura?" organizat de Asociatia de Literatura Generala si Comparata din Romania, New Europe College, Bucuresti, 27-28 iunie 2003.

- Fifth Congress of Romanian Mathematicians, University of Pitesti, Romania, 22-28 June, 2003.

- International Summer Institute of Semiotic and Structural Studies, Imatra, Finland, June 8-13, 2003.

- Opening course at the Second International PhD School in Formal Languages and Applications, Universidad Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain, 26-28 March 2003.

- International Congress of the German Association for Semiotics, July 2002, Kassel, Germany.

- International Summer Institute for Semiotics and Structural Studies,Imatra, Finland, June 9-15, 2002.

- Opening of the Postdoctoral International Courses of Formal Languages and their Applications, University Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain, 1-3 April, 2002.

- International Congress "Science and Religion. Antagonism or Complementarity?" Romanian Academy, Unesco, Paris Interdisciplinary University, Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences, Berkeley, John Templeton Foundation, Institut Francais de Bucarest, Bucharest, 8-11 November, 2002.

- Conferinta internationala "Identitate culturala in tranzitie", Universitatea din Bacau, 1-4 noiembrie 2001.

- 6th National Congress of the Hellenic Semiotic Society. Semiotic Systems and Communication:Action, Interaction, Situation and Change. Thessaloniki, 28-30 September 2001.

- International Summer Institute for Semiotic and Structural Studies, June 10-15, 2001, Imatra, Finland.

- Colloque "Geographie et Mathematique" (Institut Kurt Bosch, Sion,Switzerland, October, 2000).

- Colloque franco-roumain de mathematiques appliquees (Constanta, 28-31 August, 2000).

- Workshop on multiset computing (Curtea de Arges, 16-23 August, 2000).

- German-Romanian Conference of Geometry and Discrete Mathematics (Dortmund, July 2000).

- International Conference on Symmetry and Antisymmetry (Brasov, July 2000).

- Congreso Argentino del Color, Mendoza, Argentina, 15-18 May 2000.

- Workshop on Algebraic Systems, Formal Languages and Computation, Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences of Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, March 21-23, 2000.

- Third International Colloquium on Words, Languages and Combinatorics, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto, Japan, 14-18 March 2000.

- German-Italian Semiotic Colloquium on "Crisis of Representation", University of Kassel, Germany, February 18-19, 2000.

- Intensive Balkan Seminar Mathematics for Industry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 22-26 November, 1999.

- 7th International Congress of the International Association for Semiotic Studies, Dresden, October 4-11, 1999.

- 9th International Congress of the German Association of Semiotics, Dresden, October 3-6, 1999.

- 9th International Conference on Automata and Formal Languages,Vasszecseny, Hungary, August 9-13, 1999.

- Honorary Guest, Summer Symposium in Real Analysis, Lodz, Poland, June 21-26, 1999.

- Director, Working Session on Semiotics and Information, International Summer Institute for Semiotics and Structural Studies, ISI-ISSS, Imatra, Finland, June 10-18, 1999.

- The European Heritage of Semiotics, Dresden, February 18-21, 1999.

- La latinite: l'avenir d'un passe. Cluj-Napoca, Octobre 15-20, 1998.

- Seminario Avancado de Comunicacao e Semiotica: Biossemiotica e Semiotica Cognitiva, Sao Paulo, de 19 a 21 Agosto de 1998.

- First International Conference on Rough Sets and Current Trends in Computing . Warsaw, June 22-26, 1998.

- International Summer Institute of Semiotics and Structural Studies, ISI-ISSS, Imatra, Finland, June 6-14, 1998.

- Paul Grice's Heritage. Centro Internazionale di Studi Semiotici e Cognitivi, Ex-monastera Santa-Chiara, Universita degli Studi, Republica di San Marino, , May 22-24, 1998.

- Matematica 2000. Un incontro con la Matematica. Dipartimento di Scienze Matematiche, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Maggio 20-21, 1998.

- International Conference on Bridges and Interfaces: Form, Meaning and Function. Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague, March 12-14, 1998.

- Jornado do CEPE-COS, Centro de Estudos Peirceanos, Pontificia Universidade Catolica di Sao Paulo, 30 de Outubro de 1997.

- Third International Conference on Quantitative Linguistics. Helsinki,August 26-29, 1997.

- Workshop on Molecular Computation. Mangalia, Romania, August 17-24, 1997.

- NEUROTOP97 Neural Research Priorities in Data Transmission and EDA Workshop. Department of Electronics, Transylvania University, Brasov, Romania. May 26-27, 1997.

- Semiotics and Culture. V-th National Congress, Helenic Semiotic Society,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, May 8-12, 1997.

- Simpozionul "Arta concreta", Muzeul National de Arta al Romaniei, Bucuresti, 17 aprilie 1997.

- Minisemester on Logic, Algebra and Computer Science dedicated to the Memory of Professor Helena Rasiowa, December 10-20, 1996, Stephan Banach International Mathematical Center, Warsaw, Poland.

- Third International Latin-American Congress of Semiotics "Chaos and Order", Sao Paulo, Brazil, August 31-September 3, 1996.

- Struga Poetry Evenings, Struga, Makedonia, August 20-25, 1996.

- International Conference "Symmetry and Antisymmetry in Mathematics and Computer Science", Transylvania University, Brasov, Romania, 18-20 July 1996.

- International Semiotic Institute Conference, Imatra, Finland, 8-16 June,1996.

- International Conference of Mathematical Linguistics, Tarragona, Spain, 2-4 May, 1996.

- International Conference dedicated to the 70th anniversary of Prague Linguistic Circle. Prague, Czech Republic, March 28-30, 1996.

- Seminar on Informatics and Semiotics, Dagstuhl, Germany, 19-23 February, 1996.

- Coloquio Internacional sobre arte na ciencia e ciencia na arte: alem das duas culturas. Teatro Ruth Escobar, Sao Paulo, de 26 a 28 de Outubro 1995.

- International Conference "Perception and Selfconciousness in Science and in Art", organized by the Portuguese Semiotic Society, O Porto, Portugal, 26-28 September 1995.

- International Conference "Structuralism in Eastern Europe", Dresden, Germany, 17-21 April 1995.

- International Conference "Semiotics of the Media", Kassel, Germany, 18-23 March 1995.

- First World Congress of Transdisciplinarity, Convento de Arrabida, Setubal, Portugal, 2-6 November 1994.

- Post Congress Session, Fifth International Congress of Semiotics, Berkeley, California, 19 June 1994.

- First International Conference of Mathematical Linguistics, Tarragona, 3-7 April, 1993.

- International Summer School on The Cultural Impact of Mathematics, Universitat Kaiserslautern, Institute of Applied Mathematics, 30 May - 5 June, 1992.

- 7th Symposium of Osterreichischen Gesellschaft fur Semiotik, Kulturschlossl, Sigharting, 5-7 October, 1990.

- International Semioticians Conference on Symbolicity, Budapest-Wien, 30 September- 4 October, 1990.

- International Semiotics Institute Conference in Imatra, Finland, on "Center and Periphery in Representations and Institutions", July 16-21, 1990.

- Congress of Brasilian Semiotic Society, Porto Alegre, August 1990.

- Premier Congres de l'Association Internationale pour la Semiologie de l'Image. Blois, France, Novembre 1990.

- 7th European LSP Symposium (Languages with Special Purposes), Budapest, 21-26 August, 1989.

- Fourth Congress of the International Association for Semiotic Studies, Barcelona - Perpignan, April 1989


- Colloque International "Mathematiques et Sciences Humaines, Marseille - Luminy, France, Juin 1988.

- IV Congreso de Lenguajes Naturales y Lenguajes Formales, Universitat de Barcelona, September 1988.

- Decade de Semiotique, Cerisy-La-Salle, France, July 1983.

- International Conference on Real Analysis, Univ. of Santa Barbara, California, May 1983.

- Meetings of the United Nations University, Tokyo (1976 Dubrovnik, 1978; Geneve, 1980; Montreal, 1981; Tokyo, 1982; Athens, Colombo (Sri Lanka), Beijing).

- Linguistic Institute of America, June 1975, Tampa, Florida.

- First Congress of the International Association for Semiotic Studies,Milano, June 1974.

- Centro Internazionale di Semiotica e Linguistica, Urbino, Italy, July 1974, July 1973.

- Linguistic Institute of America SUNY Buffalo, July - August 1971.

- International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Sanga Seminaire International de Linguistique Formelle. Septembre 1968, Aiguilles-Alpes, France.

- Conference Internationale de Linguistique Computationnelle. Grenoble 1967.

Invited professor and/or researcher

- Department of Mathematics, University of Toronto, Febr-December 1971.

- Department of Communication and Semiotics, Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Sao Paulo, August 1990, August-December 1995, August-December 1996, August-November 1997, August-September 1998 (beginning with 1996, he is permanent invited professor).

- Department of Social Sciences, University of Buenos Aires, September 1990.

- Departement de Mathematiques, Universite de Paris-Sud (Orsay), Fevrier Avril 1991 et Octobre 1991-Janvier 1992.

- Institut fur Sozialwissenschaften, Universitat Siegen, June-August 1991.

- Departement d'Anthropologie, Universite Laval, Quebec, Fevrier - Avril 1992, Septembre-Decembre 1992, Sept-Decembre 1994.

- Institute of Advanced Study, Indiana University USA, 25 August - 25 September 1993.

- Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris, 17 Octobre - 17 Novembre 1993.

- Warsaw Technical University, 30 November - 20 December 1993.

- Department of Computer Science, University of Auckland, New Zealand, 6 February-10 June 1994.

- Facultat de Lettres (Mathematical Linguistics and Language Engineering), University of Tarragona, Spain, January 1995 - April 1995.

- Banach International Mathematical Centre, Polish Academy of Science, 10-20 December 1996.

Invited Lectures

More than 250 invited lectures at various universities from Europe,America, Oceania and Asia, among which the universities of Budapest, Szeged, Debrecen, Warsaw, Lodz, Paris-College de France, Paris-Sud, Paris VI, Besancon, Urbino, Prague, Brno, Bratislava, Chisinau, Moscow, Leningrad, Turku, Stockholm, Oslo, Aarhus, Utrecht, Amsterdam, Geneva, Gand, Liege, Siegen, Berlin, Kassel, Wuppertal, Kaiserslautern, Hamburg, Bochum, Stuttgart, Wien, Pisa, Trieste, Trento, Venezia, Athens, Thessaloniki, Courant Institute, New York, Syracuse-New York, Maryland, Philadelphia, Plathbourgh - New York, Hunter College - New York, Berkeley, Stanford, College-Alaska, Santa Barbara, Seattle- Washington, Lincoln - Nebraska, Chicago, Ann Arbor - Michigan, East Lansing - Michigan, Detroit-Michigan, Evanston - Illinois, Bloomington - Indiana, Lafayette - Indiana, Gainesville - Florida, Rio Piedras-Puerto Rico, Vancouver, Edmonton,Calgary, Sherbrooke, Montreal (McGill, Univ.de Montreal and Univ. du Quebec a Montreal), Toronto (Toronto University, York University and Glendon College), Saint Jean (Quebec), Univ. du Quebec a Hull, Trois Rivieres (Quebec), Hamilton-Ontario, London-Ontario, Kingston (Ontario), Ontario, Ottawa (Carleton and Univ.of Ottawa), Guelph, Regina Campus, Brock Univ., (Canada), Auckland, St. Catharines, Hamilton (New Zealand), Sao Paulo and Campinas (Brazil), Buenos Aires and La Plata (Argentina),Technion (Haifa) and Weizmann Institute, Rehovot (Israel), Beijing (China), Tokyo, Kyoto (Japan), Colombo (Sri Lanka) and most universities in Romania.

Interest for the Romanian Mathematical Heritage

In this respect, Marcus published two books and a large number of articles concerning some of the most important Romanian mathematicians of the past generations: S.Haret, D.Pompeiu, T.Lalescu, P.Sergescu, S.Stoilow, O.Onicescu, D.Barbilian, M.Nicolescu, Gr.C.Moisil, G.Sudan, A.Froda, N.Cioranescu, etc. Pompeiu derivatives and Stoilow's results related to the differential structure of a continuous function, as well as Nicolescu's results concerning the relation between Riemann integrability and Jordan measurability, long time forgotten by the mathematical world, were brought into attention by Marcus, who showed their relevance in respect to contemporary mathematics; as a consequence, some of these results came into the attention of researchers and were incorporated in the contemporary monographs, such as those of A.M.Bruckner and of K.M.Garg. The fundamental result of Sudan, concerning an example of a recursive function which is not primitive recursive, was pointed out in a joint paper (with Calude and Tevy) published in Historia Mathematica and, as a consequence, is now mentioned in various monographs of recursive functions and mathematical logic. Sudan found this example concomitantly, but independently of Ackermann, who is usually the only one quoted in this respect. But Sudan was not aware of this discovery, competing with that of Ackermann, because his example was very hidden in one of his writings and it took a great effort to identify it, following a warning from Gr.C.Moisil, short time before his death. Marcus paid a great attention to the reconsideration of two Romanian scholars having, in the thirties, an important contribution in the emergence of what we could call today mathematical aesthetics: Matila C.Ghyka and Pius Servien. As it can be seen in his books "Poetica matematica"and "Arta si stiinta", Marcus developed their ideas much beyond their initial framework. Equal attention was paid also to the mathematician-poet Dan Barbilian - Ion Barbu, by the investigation of the common denominator of his mathematical and poetic work and by tracing a parallel between them. As a clear illustration of Marcus constant interest for the development of what he calls the memory of the Romanian mathematics, let us mention that he is the editor of the mathematical works of four important Romanian mathematicians: Dimitrie Pompeiu, Gr.C.Moisil, Miron Nicolescu and Alexandru Froda. He was also, in the last ten years, the organizer of several scientific sessions of the Romanian Academy, devoted to various Romanian mathematicians. At the Tenth International Congress of Mathematical Education (Copenhagen, 4-11 July 2004), he delivered the report "Mathematics in Romania", available in printed form, CUB Press 22, Baia Mare, 2004, 84 pp. ISBN 973-9451-08 an improved form of his previous report at the Fifth Congress of Romanian Mathematicians, Pitesti, June, 2003.


Doctor Honoris Causa of the Universities of Bacau, Constanta, Craiova and Petrosani. Vice President of the International Association for Semiotic Studies (period 1989-1999); Honorary President of the Balkan Semiotic Society (2001- ); Member of the Executive Committee of the International Association for Semiotic Studies; Honorary Member of the International Association for Visual Semiotics; Honorary Member of the Toronto Semiotic Circle, of Como (Italy) Semiotic Circle and of the Hungarian Semiotic Society. Honorary member of the Romanian Mathematical Society. Honorary professor of Transylvania Univ. Brasov (1998-2000); Permanent Invited Professor, Sao Paulo Catholic University; Member of the Romanian National Mathematical Commitee; Member of the leading Council of the Romanian Linguistic Society; Member of the Romanian Union of Writers and Member (1990-1995) of the leading Council of this Union; Vicepresident of the Romanian Semiotic Society; Member of the Romanian Committee for the Club of Rome; Former president of the Romanian Computer Science Society; Member of the Program Commitee or of the Scientific Commitee of various international meetings; for example, member of the Program Committee of the International Conference on "Words, Languages, Combinatorics", Kyoto, Japan, 11-14 March 2000 and of the Second International Conference on Rough Sets and Current Trends in Computing, Banff, Canada, October 16-19, 2000; Member of the Program Committee of the International Conference of Discrete Mathematics and Mathematical Computer Science, Constanta, 1-6 July, 2001; Member of the Program Committee of the International Conference of RSCTC, Penn State Great Valley, October 2002. Honorary member of the Society Eratosthene, Switzerland. Member of the Scientific Councils of the Publishing House of the Romanian Academy and of the Library of the Romanian Academy. Member of the Leading Council of the Black Sea University Foundation (2002- ); Member of the International Advisory Council of ASEMASS & COMGLOBAL (World Asociation for Mass. mediatic Semiotic Global Communication) and the 2nd World Congress of Semiotic and Communication; the Massmediatic Dimension, for 2005. Honorary member of the International Symmetry Association (2003- ). The International Journal of Computer Mathematics (Great Britain) and Revue Roumaine de Mathematiques Pures et Appliquees devoted some of their issues in 1985 to the 60th anniversary of S.M., while two collective volumes were dedicated to his 70th anniversary, in 1995: "Mathematical Aspects of Natural and Formal Languages" (G.Paun, ed ) World Scientific, Singapore et al, 1994 and "Mathematical Linguistics and Related Topics (ed. G.Paun), Publishing House of Romanian Academy, Bucharest,1995. In "People and Ideas in Theoretical Computer Science" (ed. Cristian S.Calude), Springer, Singapore, Berlin et al., 1998, a special chapter is authored by Marcus (among the other authors: L.Babai, G.J.Chaitin, M.Davis, E.W.Dijkstra, J.Goguen, R.M.Karp, Y.Matiyasevich, G.Rozenberg, A.Salomaa). In the year 2000, two volumes were dedicated to his 75th anniversary:"Finite vs Infinite" (eds.C.S.Calude and G.Paun), Springer, London et al and "Recent Topics in Mathematical and Computational Linguistics" (eds. C.Martin-Vide and G.Paun), Publ. House of the Romanian Academy, Bucuresti. In the year 2005, volume 64, numbers 1-2-3-4 of "Fundamenta Informaticae" were published as a "Special issue on contagious creativity in Honor of the 80th birthday of Professor Solomon Marcus" (70 authors from 16 countries).

Stimulating the first steps in research

Marcus's strategy as a teacher and educator was to incorporate the research attitude in the general training of students, as an obligatory component of the learning process. Typical in this respect is his book "The mathematical shock" (in Romanian). He stimulated students to transgress as soon as possible the limits of the course taught and of the handbook and to look in the research journals, the only place where you get a taste of the authentic, alive science. He organized in this respect scientific circles for students, guiding them to raise a problem and to pursue it until a result is obtained. Hundreds of students remember their first experience of this type, under his guidance. For many today wellknown specialists in their fields, some of them famous, Marcus had a role in stimulating their first steps as researchers; one can quote in this respect names such as Toma Albu, Alexandra Bagdasar, N.Boboc, C.Calude, C.Foias, S.Guiasu, M.Iosifescu, G.Paun, Dana Tautu (Schlomiuk), L.Tzafriri, V.Vianu, S.Zaidman, T.Zamfirescu. About 40 mathematicians obtained their PhD under his guidance, while tens of PhD degrees in other fields, such as Linguistics, Philosophy etc had Marcus as a referee. Many foreign scholars came in Romania to work with him (B.Brainerd, B.Brodda, J.Ceder, E.Deak, S.Ferenczi, D.Herault, H.Karlgren, J.Kunze, L.Misik, L.Nebesky, W.Priess, G.Rozenberg, M.Semeniuk, B.Svensson etc).

Prizes and other signs of attention

Prize for mathematics for the year 1961, of the Ministery of Education. Prize Timotei Cipariu (1964) for Linguistics and Prize Gheorghe Lazar (1967) for Mathematics of the Romanian Academy. One of the most important Romanian poets, Nichita Stanescu, dedicated to S.M. the poem "Matematica poetica" (The poetical mathematics), included in his book "Maretia frigului". Constanta Buzea dedicated him a poem in a special issue of the journal "Amfiteatru". The world famous artist of the syrinx Gheorghe Zamfir dedicated a piece of poetry to S.M. (in "Drum de spini si glorii", Ed.Eminescu, Bucuresti, 1981, p.95). Constantin Ottescu, one of the best teachers of mathematics in Romania, dedicated him the sonnet "Apolo si Aristarh din Samos", included in his volume "Sonete albastre", Ed.Libri Press, Bucuresti, 1998, p.39. Prize for Outstanding Achievements in the field of Literary Theory, International Poetry Evenings, Struga, Makedonia, August, 1996. Various other prizes by Romanian cultural journals, such as "Ateneu", "Flacara", "Stiinta si Tehnica". In 1998, he was distinguished by the Romanian Broadcasting Society with the title of "personality of Romanian Radio", for the quality of his cultural contributions. At 15 January 2000, at the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the Romanian poet Mihai Eminescu, he received a "Diploma of excellence" from the Foundation "Scrisul Romanesc", for his work dedicated to Eminescu. At 1 December 2000, the National Day of Romania, he received from the President of Romania the National Order "Serviciul Credincios in Gradul de Comandor". In October 2001, he received from the Council of the city of Bacau, Romania, the title of Honorary Citizen of the city of Bacau. In July 2003 he received "Grand Prix National de Literature", decerne par le Conseil du Festival International "Nuits Poetiques de Curtea de Arges", organised par l'Academie Internationale Orient-Occident. At January 31, 2005, he received within the framework of the Program "Global Perspectives on Science and Spirituality: A Program of the Universite Interdisciplinaire de Paris and Elon University with funding from the John Templeton Foundation" a Global Perspectives on Science and Spirituality Honorable Mention Award. At the 1st of March 2005, he received from the Rector of the University of Bucharest, Prof.Dr. Ioan Panzaru, a Diploma of excellence: "Se acorda Domnului Academician Prof.Dr.Doc. Solomon Marcus, ilustru matematician, neintrecut maestru al Universitatii din Bucuresti, creator si conducator de scoala, personalitate emblematica a culturii romanesti". On First of March,2005, "Asociatia de Drept International si Relatii Internationale" honored S.M. with "Diploma de Onoare Nicolae Titulescu", "pentru prestigiul adus stiintei romanesti in lume". At the same date, S.M. received a message from the Ministery of Culture, Mona Musca,: "[...] Ca ministru al culturii si ca om, ma simt onorata sa va omagiez la implinirea a 80 de ani de viata.[...] Numele dv [...] este definitiv legat de aceste teritorii de interferenta ale matematicii cu literatura. Studiile dv. de lingvistica matematica, de poetica matematica sau de semiotica ne-au uimit de fiecare data prin precizia demonstratiei, logica impecabila, unghiul mai putin comun de abordare.[...]". On 13 May 2005, Ministerul Educatiei si Cercetarii (Consiliul National al Cercetarii Stiintifice din Invatamantul Superior) honored S.M. with "Premiul Opera Omnia insotit de placheta, pentru intreaga activitate de cercetare stiintifica". On 6th of July 2005, S.M. has received the title of Doctor Honoris Causa of the University Ovidius, Constanta.Within the framework of the Colloq. "Literature and interdisciplinarity", organized in Aula Magna of the University "Transilvania" (Brasov), in the period 15-16 July 2005, by the Romanian Association of General and Comparative Literature, a special section was devoted to S.M.'s work, at the occasion of his 80th Birthday (speakers:Paul Cornea, Monica Spiridon, Gabriela Duda, S.M. and Gh.Craciun). In March 2006, he received the Prize of Radio Romania Cultural.

Other aspects

Marcus has devoted an important part of his publications to various problems of history of mathematics, mathematical education, history and philosophy of science, of inter- and transdisciplinary research. He has argued for a stronger interaction between Mathematics and the Humanities and for a radical change in the system of mathematical education. Some of his books were translated, in revised and improved form, in English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian, Czech, Hungarian, Greek, Serbo-Croatian. A large number of monographs in Mathematics, Mathematical Linguistics, Linguistics and Semiotics have devoted at least one section to the presentation or use of his work (authors: B.Brainerd, A.Bruckner, M.Carlson, G.Girard-R.Ouellet-C.Rigault, J.Horecky, F.Kiefer, J.M.Klinkenberg, D.Lafon, G.Massariello-Merzagora, M.Nowakowska, M.Pfister, Gh.Paun, I.I.Revzin, H.G.Schogt, M.Semeniuk Polkowska, S.Serrano, B.S.Thomson, A.Van Kesteren, P.Ver Eecke, etc.). Some of the ideas and results proposed by S.M. were quoted in textbooks addressed to highschool students: Ion Duna, Raluca Duna: "Limba si literatura romana"; Manual pentru clasa a IX-a, Editura Didactica si Pedagogica, Bucuresti, 1999, p.246-247; Alexandru Crisan, Liviu Papadima, Ioana Parvulescu, Florentina Samihaian, Rodica Zafiu: "Limba si literatura romana". Manual pentru clasa a IX-a. Editura Humanitas Educational, Bucuresti, 1999, p.107; Nicolae Manolescu (coordonator),George Ardeleanu, Matei Cerkez, Dumitrita Stoica, Ioana Triculescu: "Limba si literatura romana". Manual pentru clasa a XI-a. Editura Sigma, Bucuresti, 2001, p.61.


Books, authored or co-authored

  1. Lingvistica matematica. Modele matematice in lingvistica, Ed.Didactica si Pedagogica, Bucuresti, 1963, 220p.
  2. Gramatici si automate finite, Ed Academiei, Bucuresti, 1964, 256p.
  3. Analiza matematica, vol.I. Ed.Didactica si Pedagogica Bucuresti, ed.I, 1962, 735p., 2nd edition 1963. 3rd edition 1966, 768p., 4th edition 1971, 785p., 5th edition 1980, 790p. (in collab. with Miron Nicolescu and Nicolae Dinculeanu).
  4. Lingvistica matematica, (2nd edition, revised and completed with 4 new chapters). Ed.Didactica si Pedagogica, Bucuresti, 1966, 254p.
  5. Introducere in lingvistica matematica, Ed.Stiintifica, Bucuresti, 1966, 336 p. (in collab. with E.Nicolau and S.Stati).
  6. Notiuni de analiza matematica. Originea, evolutia si semnificatia lor, Ed.Stiintifica, Bucuresti, 1967, 237p.
  7. Limbaj, logica, filozofie, Ed.Stiintifica, Bucuresti, 1968, 261p. (in collab. with Al. Boboc, Gh Enescu, C.Popa and S.Stati).
  8. Analiza matematica, vol.II, Ed.Didactica si Pedagogica, Bucuresti 1st ed. 1966; 2nd ed. 1971; 3rd ed. 1980; 414p. (in collab. with Miron Nicolescu and N.Dinculeanu).
  9. Introduction mathematique a la linguistique structurale, Dunod, Paris, 1967, XII + 282p.
  10. Algebraic Linguistics; Analytical Models, Academic Press, New York, 1967, XIV + 254p.
  11. Poetica matematica, Ed. Academiei, Bucuresti, 1970, 400p.
  12. Teoretiko-mnozestvennye modeli jazykov, Ed.Nauka, Moscova, 1970, 332p. (translation of the first five chapters of the book 10 and of the last chapter of the book 9).
  13. Algebraicke modely jazyka. Ed. Academia, Prague, 1969, 289p. (translation in Czech of the book 4, and of a part of the book 2).
  14. Introduzione alla linguistica matematica, Casa editrice Riccardo Patron, Bologna, 1970, 448p. (revised and completed translation of the book 5), in collab. with E.Nicolau and S.Stati.
  15. Mathematische Poetik, Ed.Academiei, Bucuresti-Athenaum Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 1973, 437p. (revised and completed translation of the book 11).
  16. Matematicka Poetika, Ed.Nolit, Belgrad, 1974, 337p. (revised and completed Serbo-Croatian translation of the book 11).
  17. Din gandirea matematica romaneasca, Ed.Stiintifica si Enciclopedica, Bucuresti, 1975, 224p.
  18. Semiotica folclorului. Abordare lingvistico-matematica, Ed.Academiei, Bucuresti, 1975, 268p.(coauthor).
  19. Matematicka analyza ctena podruhe, Ed.Academia, Prague, 1976, 234p. (revised and completed Czech translation of the book 6).
  20. A nyelvi szepseq matematikaja, Ed.Gondolat, Budapesta, 1977, 400 p.
  21. Metode distributionale algebrice in lingvistica, Ed.Academiei, Bucuresti, 1977, 256p. (coauthor).
  22. La semiotique formelle du folklore. Approche linguistico-mathematique, Ed.Klincksieck, Paris - Ed.Academiei, Bucuresti, 1978, 309p. (revised and completed translation of the book 18) (coauthor).
  23. Introduccion en la linguistica matematica, Ed.Teide, Barcelona, 1978, 386p. (revised and completed Spanish translation of the book 5).
  24. Semne despre semne, Ed.Stiintifica si Enciclopedica, Bucuresti, 1979, 112 p.
  25. Contextual ambiguities in natural & artificial languages, Vol.1, Ed.Communication and Cognition, Ghent, Belgium, 1981, 138p. (revised and completed translation of a part of the book 21).
  26. Snmeia gia ta snmeia, Ed.Pneumatikos, Atena, 1981, 119p. (Greek translation of the book 24).
  27. Metode matematice in problematica dezvoltarii, Ed.Academiei, Bucuresti, 1982, 198p. (coauthor).
  28. Gandirea algoritmica, Ed.Tehnica, Bucuresti, 1982, 131p.
  29. Semiotica matematica a artelor vizuale, Ed.Stiintifica si Enciclopedica, Bucuresti, 1982, 410p. (coordinator and coauthor).
  30. Simion Stoilow, Ed.Stiintifica si Enciclopedica, Bucuresti, 1983, 315p. (in collab. with Cabiria Andreian Cazacu).
  31. Paradoxul, Ed.Albatros, Bucuresti, 1984, 183p.
  32. Timpul, Ed.Albatros, Bucuresti, 1985, 386p.
  33. Arta si stiinta, Ed.Eminescu, Bucuresti, 1986, 332p.
  34. Analiza matematica, vol.II, Univ.Bucuresti, 1986, 477p. (coauthor).
  35. To Paradocso, Ed.Pneumatikos, Atena, 1986, 126p. (Greek version of the book 31).
  36. Socul matematicii, Ed.Albatros, Bucuresti, 1987, 366p.
  37. Moduri de gandire, Colectia "Stiinta pentru toti", Ed.Stiintifica si Enciclopedica, Bucuresti, 1987, 110p.
  38. Provocarea stiintei, Seria "Idei contemporane", Ed.Politica, Bucuresti, 1988, 470 p.
  39. Inventie si descoperire, Ed.Cartea Romaneasca, 1989, 296p.
  40. Analiza matematica, Materiale pentru perfectionarea profesorilor de liceu III. Universitatea din Bucuresti, Facultatea de Matematica, Bucuresti, 1989, 319p.(coauthor)
  41. Dictionar de Analiza Matematica, Ed.Stiintifica si Enciclopedica, Bucuresti, 1989 (coauthor).
  42. Controverse in stiinta si inginerie, Ed.Tehnica, Bucuresti, 1991, 248 p.
  43. Language, Logic, Cognition and Communication; A Semiotic, Computational and Historical Approach, Report 9/96. Grup de Recerca en Linguistica Matematica i Enginyeria del Llenguatge. Reports Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain, 1996, 184 p.
  44. Matematica, manual pentru clasa a IX-a, licee teoretice specializarea filologie (in colaborare cu Mihaela Singer). Editura Sigma, Bucuresti, 1999; editia a doua, 2000.
  45. Matematica, manual pentru clasa a XII-A (coautor cu Petrus Alexandrescu, Marius Radulescu, Sorin Radulescu). Editura Paralela 45, Bucuresti-Pitesti, 2002.
  46. Jocul ca libertate, Editura Scripta (Colectia ludica), Bucuresti, 2003, 288p.
  47. Mathematics in Romania. CUB Press 22, Baia Mare, 2004, 84 p.
  48. Intalnirea extremelor. Scriitori - in orizontul stiintei, Editura Paralela 45, Bucuresti-Pitesti, 2005, 308p.
  49. Paradigme universale. Editura Paralela 45, Pitesti-Bucuresti, 2005, 307p.
  50. Pornind de la un zambet, Editura Paralela 45, Pitesti-Bucuresti, 2006, 300p.
  51. Words and languages everywhere, Polimetrica International Scientific Publisher, Monza-Milano, 2007, 540p.

Books and special issues coordinated, edited, prefaced or postfaced

(including also some books already mentioned as being co-authored)

  1. Dimitrie Pompeiu, Opera matematica. Editura Academiei, Bucuresti, 1959 (editing and introductory study).
  2. Semiotica folclorului. Abordare lingvistico-matematica. Editura Academiei, Bucuresti, 1975.(editing and introductory study).
  3. Metode distributionale-algebrice in lingvistica. Editura Academiei, Bucuresti, 1977 (editing and introductory study).
  4. La semiotique formelle du folklore. Approche linguistico-mathematique. Ed.Klincksieck, Paris - Editura Academiei, Bucuresti, 1978 (under the direction of, introductory study).
  5. Contextual Ambiguities in Natural and in Artificial Languages, vol.1, Communication and Cognition, Ghent, Belgium, 1981 (preface and coordination).
  6. Metode matematice in problematica dezvoltarii. Editura Academiei, Bucuresti, 1982 (editing and introductory study).
  7. Semiotica matematica a artelor vizuale. Editura stiintifica si enciclopedica, Bucuresti, 1982 (editing and introductory study).
  8. Proceedings of the Symposium on Algebraic Linguistics held 10-12 February 1970, Smolenice. Publishing House, Slovak Academy of Science, Bratislava, 1973 (coordination with Jan Horecky and Laszlo Kalmar).
  9. Poetics and Mathematics. Special issue of the journal POETICS, Mouton,The Hague, no.10, 1974 (editorial note and coordination).
  10. The formal study of drama. Special issue of the journal POETICS, North Holland, Amsterdam, vol.6, no.3/4, 1977 (editorial note and editing).
  11. Theorie et pratique de la reception. Special issue of the journal "Degres", Brussels, 1981 (coordination with I.Coteanu, P.Miclau, and R.Munteanu).
  12. Semiotique roumaine. Tipografia Universitatii din Bucuresti, 1981(coordination with P.Miclau).
  13. Contextual Ambiguities in Natural and in Artificial Languages, vol.II, "Communication and Cognition", Ghent, Belgium, 1983 (preface and coordination).
  14. The Formal Study of Drama, II. Special issue of the journal POETICS, Amsterdam, vol.13, no.1/2, 1984 (editorial note and coordination).
  15. Semnificatie si comunicare in lumea contemporana. Editura Politica, Bucuresti, 1985 (presentation, anthology and edition).
  16. Modele matematice si semiotice ale dezvoltarii sociale. Editura Academiei, Bucuresti, 1986 (preface and coordination).
  17. Gr.C.Moisil, Opera matematica, vol.1, Editura Academiei, Bucuresti, 1976 (preface, edition and introductory study).
  18. Gr.C.Moisil, Opera matematica, vol.II, Editura Academiei, Bucuresti, 1980 (preface, edition and introductory study).
  19. Miron Nicolescu, Opera matematica. Functii poliarmonice. Editura Academiei, Bucuresti, 1980 (edition and introductory study).
  20. Gr.C.Moisil, Opera matematica, vol.III, Editura Academiei, Bucuresti, 1992 (edition and introductory study).
  21. Miron Nicolescu, Opera matematica. Ecuatii eliptice si parabolice. Editura Academiei, Bucuresti, 1992 (edition and introductory study).
  22. Alexandru Froda, Opera matematica, vol.1. Editura Academiei Romane, Bucuresti, 2003 (edition and introductory study).
  23. Alexandru Froda, Opera matematica, vol.II. Editura Academiei Romane, Bucuresti, 2004 (edition and preface).
  24. Coordination with Ana-Maria Barbu of two issues of Revue Roumaine de Linguistique/Romanian Journal of Linguistics. 2-3, 2007, on Computational Linguistics.
  25. Coordinaton with Afrodita Iorgulescu, Sergiu Rudeanu, Dragos Vaida: Moisil's Centennial. Fifty years of Computer Science in Romania. Publishing House of the Romanian Academy, Bucharest, 2007.

Invited prefaces or postfaces to books by Nicolae Brindus, Corneliu Cezar, Ioan Ciofu, Adrian Gheorghe, Octavian Nemescu, Constantin Virgil Negoita - Dan A.Ralescu, Gheorghe Paun, Alexandru Popovici, Alexandru Teodorescu - I.Catona - C.Popescu, Dragos Vaida - Alexandru Mateescu, Anatol Vieru etc.

Research articles

  1. Asupra unei teoreme a lui G.P.Tolstov. Comunicarile Acad. RPR. vol.2, 1952, nr.1, p.5-8.
  2. Uber einen Lehrsatz von G.P.Tolstov. Rev.Math. et Phys., vol.2, 1954, p.59-61.
  3. O teorema G.P.Tolstova. Jurnal matem. i fiz., Akad.Rum.Narod. Resp.3, 1954, p.63-65.
  4. Asupra discontinuitatilor functiilor de trei sau mai multe variabile, cu numere derivate partiale continue. Comunicarile Acad RPR, vol.2, 1952, nr.2, p.125-128.
  5. Limita aproximativa calitativa. Comunicarile Acad. RPR, vol.3, 1953, nr.1-2, p.9-12.
  6. Continuitatea aproximativa calitativa. Comunicarile Acad. RPR, vol.3, 1953, nr.3-4, p.117-120.
  7. Derivata aproximativa calitativa. Comunicarile Acad. RPR, vol.3, 1953, nr.11-12, p.361-364.
  8. Proprietati metrice si proprietati calitative ale functiilor reale de doua variabile. Buletin Stiintific Acad. RPR, Sectia stiinte mat.fiz., vol.5, 1953, nr.4, p.527-544.
  9. Doua exemple in legatura cu teorema lui Fubini la integrala Riemann. In:Miron Nicolescu, Analiza matematica, vol.II, Ed.Academiei, 1953, p.292-295.
  10. Compunerea functiilor cu variatie marginita. Buletin Stiintific Acad.RPR, Sectia de stiinte mat.fiz., vol.5, 1954, nr.2, p.243-250.
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  14. Conditiile (T) ale lui Banach la functii de doua variabile. Revista Universitatii C.I.Parhon si Politehnicii Bucuresti, vol.8, 1955, p.15-22.
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  17. Sur un probleme de F.Hausdorff concernant les fonctions symetriques continues, Bull. de l'Academie Polonaise des Sciences, classe III, vol.4, 1956, nr.4, p.201-205.
  18. Ob odnom probleme Hausdorffa. Bull. Polskoi Akad.Nauk, otdel III, vol.4, 1956. nr.4, p.195-199.
  19. Sur un probleme de la theorie de la mesure de H.Steinhaus et S.Ruziewicz. Bull. de l'Academie Polonaise des Sciences, classe III, vol.4, 1956, nr.4, p.197-199.
  20. Ob odnoi probleme Steinhauza i S.Ruziewicza po teorii mer. Bull.Polskoi Akad.Nauk, otdel III, vol.4, 1956, nr.4, p.193-194.
  21. Sur une generalisation des fonctions de G.Hamel. Rendiconti dell'Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei (Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali), seria VIII, vol.20, 1956, nr.5, p.584-589.
  22. Sur quelques notions de monotonie concernant les fonctions reelles de deux variables reelles. Comptes rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, vol.242, 1956, nr.18, p.2207-2209.
  23. Sur la structure des ensembles de niveau des fonctions de deux variables. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences Paris, vol.242, 1956, nr.19, p.2273-2275.
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  26. Contributii la o analiza a functiilor reale bazata pe notiunea de categorie (in sensul lui Baire). Studii si Cercet Mat., vol.7, 1956, nr.3-4, p.251-272.
  27. Asupra determinarii unei functii partial continue prin valorile luate pe o multime densa, II, Comunicarile Acad. RPR, vol.6, 1956, nr.7, p.985-987.
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  29. Sur certaines classes de fonctions continues de deux variables reelles et leurs ensembles de niveau. Note I. Rendiconti dell'Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei (Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali), seria VIII, vol.22, 1957, nr.1, p.24-30.
  30. Sur certaines classes de fonctions continues et leurs ensembles de niveau. Note II. Rendiconti dell'Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei (Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali), seria VIII, vol.22, 1957, nr.2, p.140-145.
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  33. Criteres de majoration pour les fonctions sous-additives, convexes ou internes. Comptes rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris. vol.244, 1957, nr.18, p.2270-2272.
  34. Sur un theoreme de M.A.Marchaud et sur les fonctions derivables presque partout. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, vol.244, 1957, nr.19, p.2245-2247.
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  39. Sur la decomposition de l'espace euclidien en ensembles homogenes, Acta Mathematica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, vol.8, 1957, nr.3-4, p.443-452 (in collab. with Paul Erdos).
  40. Sur un theoreme de F.B.Jones. Sur un theoreme de S.Kurepa. Bull. Math.de la Soc. des Sciences Math. et Phys.de la RPR, vol.1 (49), 1957, nr.4, p.433-434.
  41. Sur les derivees partielles mixtes. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences de Paris, vol.246, 1958, nr.4, p.522-524.
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  45. Un exemplu de functie de doua variabile, discontinua peste tot si avand derivate partiale de orice ordin, finite, in fiecare punct, cu exceptia unei multimi numerabile, In Miron Nicolescu, "Analiza matematica", vol.II, Ed.Tehnica, Bucuresti, 1958, p.424-425.
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  48. Sur une classe de fonctions definies par des inegalites, introduite par M.A.Csaszar. Acta Scientiarum Mathematicarum, Szeged, vol.19, 1958, nr.3-4, p.192-218.
  49. Sur une theorie du type Lebesgue pour l'integrale Riemann. Bull math.de la Soc. des Sciences Math. et Phys de la RPR, vol.2 (50), 1958, nr.2, p.187-197.
  50. Sur le probleme de la mesurabilite des ensembles projectifs. Comptes rendus de l'Academie des sciences, Paris, vol.247, 1958, nr.1, p.21-22.
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  54. Conditions d'equivalence a une constante pour les fonctions integrables Riemann et pour les fonctions jouissants de la propriete de Baire. Rev. de math. pures et appl., vol.4, 1959, nr.2. p.283-285.
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  61. La mesure de Jordan et l'integrale de Riemann dans un espace mesure topologique. Acta Scientiarum Mathematicarum, Szeged, vol.20, 1959, nr.2-3, p.156-163.
  62. Sur la determination d'une fonction par les valeurs prises sur un certain ensemble. Annales scientifiques de l'Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, vol.76, 1959, nr.2, p.151-159 (in collab with N.Boboc).
  63. Sur la representation d'une fonction arbitraire par des fonctions jouissant de la propriete de Darboux. Comptes rendus de l'Acad. Des Sciences, Paris, vol.249, 1959, nr.1, p.25-26.
  64. Sur une propriete descriptive analogue a la propriete N de Lusin. Coll.Mathematicum, Wroclaw, vol.7, 1960, nr.2, p.213-220.
  65. Sur les theoremes de J.Mycielski et W.Gustin concernant les decompositions de l'intervalle. Colloq. Mathematicum, Wroclaw, vol.7, 1960, nr.2, p.253-256. (in collab. with Akos Csaszar).
  66. Sur la representation d'une fonction arbitraire par des fonctions jouissant de la propriete de Darboux. Transactions of the American Math.Society, vol.95, 1960, nr.3, p.489-494.
  67. Asupra unei teoreme enuntate de Lindenbaum si demonstrate de W.Sierpinski. Comunicarile Acad. RPR, vol.10, nr.7, 1960, p.547-550.
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  70. Sur un probleme de Z.Zahorski concernant les points ou la derivee est infinie. Rendiconti dell'Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, serie VIII, vol.29, 1960, nr.3-4, p.176-180.
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  74. Romanian version of the articles "Mathematique et phonologie. Theorie des graphes et consonantisme de la langue roumaine, I" and "Mathematique et phonologie. Theorie des graphes et consonantisme de la langue roumaine, II". Fonetica si Dialectologie, vol.3, 1961, p.15-55.
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  76. Sur les fonctions quasicontinues au sens de S.Kempisty. Colloq.Mathematicum, Wroclaw, vol.8, 1961, nr.1, p.47-53.
  77. On commutativity of the second order cross partial derivatives, Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, vol.12, 1961, nr.4, p.562-564.
  78. Structures linguistiques et structures topologiques. Rev. de math.pures et appl., vol.6, 1961, nr.3, p.501-506.
  79. Description, a l'aide de la theorie des ensembles, de certains phenomenes morphologiques. Rev. de math. pures et appl., vol.6, 1961, nr.4, p.735-744.
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  81. Sur les proprietes differentielles des fonctions dont les points de continuite forment un ensemble frontiere partout dense. Annales scientifiques de l'Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, 3-e serie, vol.79, 1962, nr.1, p.1-21.
  82. Teorija grafov, lingvisticeskie oppozicii i invariantnaja struktura. Problemy strukturnoi lingvistiki, vol.1, 1962, Moscow, p.22-30.
  83. Sur un modele logique de la categorie grammaticale elementaire, I. Rev.de math. pures et appl., vol.7, 1962, nr.1, p.91-107.
  84. Sur un modele logique de la categorie grammaticale elementaire, II. Zeitschrift fur Mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik, vol.8, 1962, nr.3-4, p.323-329.
  85. Ob odnoi elementarnoi grammaticeskoi kategorii, III. Rev.de math.pures et appl., vol.7, 1962, nr.4, p.683-691.
  86. Asupra unui model logic al partii de vorbire. Studii si cercet. mat., vol.13, 1962, nr.1, p.37-62.
  87. Asupra unei probleme puse de O.Frink jr., Comunicarile Acad. RPR, vol.12, 1962, nr.3, p.281-286.
  88. Asupra unei teoreme a lui A.S.Kronrod, Comunicarile Acad. RPR. vol.12, 1962, nr.3, p.287-288.
  89. Le genre grammatical et son modele logique. Cahiers de linguistique theorique et appliquee, vol.1, 1962, p.103-122; Russian translation in "Matematiceskaja Lingvistika", ed.I, Schreider, Mir, Moscow, 1964.
  90. Tocki razryva i tocki v kotoryh proizvodnaja javljaetsia beskonecnoi. Rev. de math. pures et appl., vol.7, 1962, nr.2, p.309-318.
  91. Un exemplu elementar de functie continua care nu are in nici un punct, nici derivata finita la stanga, nici derivata finita la dreapta. Gazeta matematica si fizica, seria A, vol.14 (67), 1962, nr.2, p.79-82.
  92. Asupra unei teoreme a lui Norman Levine. Studii si cercet mat., vol.13, 1962, nr.2, p.257-263.
  93. Caracterizari locale si caracterizari globale ale functiilor integrabile si ale functiilor integrale. Analele Univ. Bucuresti, seria St.naturii 34, anul XI, 1962, p.179-183.
  94. Sur une generalisation de la notion de quasi-analyticite. Comptes rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, vol.254, 1962, nr.6, p.985-987.
  95. Les ensembles stationnaires de certaines classes de fonctions. Comptes rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, vol.254, 1962, nr.7, p.1186-1188.
  96. Asupra multimilor stationare ale functiilor derivate, finite sau infinite. Comunicarile Acad. RPR, vol.12, 1962, nr.4, p.399-402.
  97. On a theorem of Denjoy and on approximate derivative. Monatshefte fur Mathematik, Wien, vol.66, 1962, nr.5, p.435-440.
  98. Les ensembles stationnaires de certaines classes de fonctions derivees. Atti dell'Academia Nazionale dei Lincei, Rendiconti, vol.32, 1962, nr.4, p.484-487.
  99. Sur un probleme de P.Scherk, concernant la somme des carres de deux derivees. Canadian Mathematical Bulletin, vol.5, 1962, nr.2, p.129-132 (in collab. with Marius Iosifescu).
  100. Un criteriu contextual de clasificare a cuvintelor (cu aplicatii la adjectivele din limba romana). Studii si cercet. lingvistice, vol.13, 1962, nr.2, p.177-189.
  101. O analiza sincronica a genului gramatical. Studii si cercet. lingvistice, vol.13, 1962, nr.3, p.337-351.
  102. A syncronic analysis of the grammatical gender. Revue de Linguistique, vol.8, 1963, nr.1, p.99-111.
  103. Aspectul logic al opozitiilor lingvistice. II. Opozitii ordonate, paradigme, morfeme si cvasimorfeme. Studii si cercet. mat., vol.13, 1962, nr.4, p.539-551.
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  105. Logiceski aspekt lingvisticeskih opozicii. Problemy Strukturnoi lingvistiki, vol.2, 1963, Moscow, p.47-74.
  106. Typologie des langues et modeles logiques. Acta Mathematica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, vol.14, 1963, nr.3-4, p.269-281.
  107. On locally recurrent functions. American Mathematical Monthly, vol.70, 1963, nr.8, p. 822-826.
  108. Some remarks on real functions. Revue de Math. Pures et Appl., vol.8, 1963, nr.2, p.267-271.
  109. Un model matematic al fonemului. Studii si cercet. mat., vol.14, 1963, nr.3, p.405-421.
  110. Automates finis, progressions arithmetiques et grammaires a un nombre fini d'etats. Comptes rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, vol.256, 1963, nr.17, p.3571-3574.
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  112. Sur les derivees dont les zeros forment un ensemble frontiere partout dense. Rendiconti del Circolo Matematico di Palermo, vol.12, 1963, nr.1. p.5-40.
  113. On a paper by B.K.Lahiri. Bulletin of the Calcutta Mathematical Society, vol.55, 1963, nr.3, p.127-129.
  114. Teoretiko-mnozestvennoe opisanie nekotoryh Morfologiceskih javlenii. Problemy Kibernetiki, Moscow, vol.10, 1963, p.241-250.
  115. Langues completement adequates et langues regulieres. Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik, vol.10, 1964, nr.1, p.7-13.
  116. On the Riemann integral in two dimensions, American Mathematical Monthly, vol.71, 1964, nr.5, p.544-545.
  117. Asupra multimilor de masura pozitiva. (Answer to a problem raised by J.Barlaz). Gazeta Matem. seria A , vol.16, 1964, nr.1-2, p.22-25.
  118. A jacobian and a hyperbolic derivative which are not connected functions, Revue Roumaine de Mathematiques Pures et Appl., vol.9, 1964, nr.8, p.767-770.
  119. Sur un modele de H.B.Curry pour le langage mathematique. Comptes rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, vol.258, 1964, nr.7, p.1454-1456.
  120. Doua probleme de Analiza din American Mathematical Monthly. Gazeta matematica, seria A, vol.XVI (LXIX), 1964, nr.1-2, p.22-25.
  121. Problem 5225. American Mathematical Monthly, vol.71, 1964, nr.5, p.802 (correction: 72, 1965, 5, p.554).
  122. Problem 5244. American Mathematical Monthly, vol.71, 1964, nr.9, p.1047 (correction: 72, 1965, 5, p.555).
  123. Problem 5246. American Mathematical Monthly, vol.71, 1964, nr.10, p.1137.
  124. Un exemplu de functie interna, strict convexa in sensul lui Jensen, care nu este convexa in sensul obisnuit. (Answer to a problem raised by J.Lipman). Gaz. matem. seria A, vol.16, 1964, nr.4, p.128-131.
  125. Open everywhere discontinous functions. American Mathematical Monthly, vol.72, 1965, nr.8, p.993 994.
  126. Sur les grammaires a un nombre fini d'etats. Cahiers de linguistique theorique et appliquee, vol.2, 1965, p.146-164.
  127. Sur la notion de projectivite. Zeitschrift fur Mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik, vol.11, 1965, nr.1, p.181-192.
  128. Dependenta si subordonare, in vol. "Omagiu lui Al.Rosetti la 70 de ani", Ed.Academiei, Bucuresti, 1965, p.527-531.
  129. Analyse contextuelle. Zeitschrift fur Phonetik, Sprachwissenschaft und Kommunikationsforschung, vol.18, 1965, nr.3, p.301-313.
  130. Sur une description axiomatique des liens syntaxiques. Zeitschrift fur Mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik, vol.11, 1965, nr.4, p.291-296.
  131. Sur un ouvrage de Stig Kanger concernant le phoneme. Statistical Methods in Linguistics (SMIL), Stockholm, 1965, vol.4, p.27-36.
  132. On the integral representation of the length of a curve. The Mathematical Student, India, vol.34, 1966, nr.1, p.39-40.
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  136. Some remarks on real functions, II. Rev. roum. de math. pures et appl., vol.11, 1966, nr.8, p.911-916.
  137. Quelques aspects des travaux roumains dans la theorie des fonctions de variables reelles. Rev. roum. de math. pures et appl., vol.11, 1966, nr.9, p.1123-1138.
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  139. Analytique et generatif dans la linguistique algebrique. ln "To Honor Roman Jakobson" II, Mouton, The Hague, 1967, p.1252-1261.
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  150. On anticonvex sets. Rev. roum. de math. pures et appl., vol.13, 1968, nr.9, p.1399-1401.
  151. Sur la domination au sens de Kunze dans la linguistique algebrique, Rev. Roum. de Math. Pures et Appl., vol.14, 1969, nr.3, p.378-396.
  152. Metode matematice in studiul dramei. Strategia personajelor, I. In "Metodologia istoriei si a criticii literare", Ed.Academiei, Bucuresti, 1969, p.163-170.
  153. Metode matematice in studiul dramei. Strategia personajelor, II. Revista de istorie si teorie literara, vol.10, 1969, nr.4, p.469-477.
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  155. Linguistique generative, modeles analytiques et Linguistique generale. Rev. Roum. de Linguistique, vol.14, 1969, nr.4, p.313-326.
  156. Deux types nouveaux de grammaires generatives. Cahiers de linguistique theorique et appliquee, vol.6, 1969, p.69-74.
  157. Contextual grammars. Rev. roum. de math. pures et appl., vol.14, 1969, nr.10, p.1473-1482; Preprint No.48, Intern. Conf. Comput. Ling., Stockholm, 1968.
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  214. The first example of a recursive function which is not primitive recursive. Historia Mathematica, Academic Press, New York., vol.6, 1979, p.330-384 (in collab. with C.Calude and I.Tevy).
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  220. Picture grammars in Chemistry. Generation of acyclic isprenoid structures. MATCH-Mathematical Chemistry, vol.8, 1980, p.193-213 (in collab. with Al.Balaban and M.Barasch).
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  232. La lecture generative. Degres, nr.28, 1981, p.61-66 (Bruxelles).
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  416. Seeing the world of convex bodies through the glasses of negligible sets. Revue Roumaine de Math. Pures et Appl. 50, 2005, 5/6, 411-417.
  417. Symmetry phenomena in infinite words, with biological, philosophical and aesthetic relevance. Symmetry: Culture and Science 14/15, 2003-2004, 477-487.
  418. Infinitatea temporala. In "Natura timpului" (coordonator Adrian Nita), Editura Pelican, Giurgiu, 2007.
  419. On the semiotic status of the poetic language. In "Signa in rebus, studia semiologica et linguistica in honorem M.Carpov" Supliment al Analelor Stiintifice ale Universaitatii Al.I. Cuza, Iasi, sectiunile Lingvistica si Limbi Straine, 2005.
  420. Mild context-sensitiviy,after twenty years. Fundamenta Informaticae 73, 2006, 1/2, 203-204.
  421. Un reper: Mihai Sora. In "Sora" (editie ingrijita de Marius Ghica). Editura Paralela 45, Pitesti, 2006, 151-154.
  422. Perspective contemporane in stiintele comunicarii. In Adela Rogojinaru (coord.) "Relatii publice si publicitate", Editura Tritonic, Bucuresti, 2006, 11-22.
  423. Mathematical proofs and mathematical mistakes in respect to their syntactic, semantic and pragmatic aspects. Semiotica, 2007.
  424. Z Pawlak, a precursor of DNA computing and of picture grammars. Fundamenta Informaticae 75, 2007, 1/4, 331-334.
  425. Towards a typology of identities of the human body. In Adela Rogojinaru (ed.) "Comunicare, relatii publice si globalizare", Ed.Tritonic, Bucuresti, 2007, 17-28.
  426. Proving and Programming, (in collab.with C.Calude and E.Calude) In "From Leibniz to Chaitin" (ed. C.Calude), World Scientific, Singapore, 2007.
  427. Aspecte computationale ale limbii romane, (in collab with Ana-Maria Barbu). In "Limba romana-stadiul actual al cercetarii" (coord. Gabriela Pana-Dindelegan) Colocviul Catedrei de Limba Romana, 29-30 November 2006, Editura Universitatii din Bucuresti, 2007.
  428. Quasiperiodic words: multi-scale case and dynamical properties, (in collab. with Thierry Monteil) Theoretical Computer Science.
  429. Limbajul in dificultate. Acta Phenomenologica.
  430. Exact sciences and the semiotics of existence. Semiotica.

Other articles

Several hundreds of articles on various cultural topics have been published in: Academica, Amfiteatru, Arges, Arhimede, Arta, Astra, Ateneu, Caiete critice, Contemporanul, Convorbiri literare, Cronica, Curentul, Cuvantul, Dilema, Diplomat Club, Familia, Flacara, Forum, Gazeta literara, Gazeta matematica, Idei in dialog, Jurnalul Literar, Luceafarul, Magazin, Magazin istoric, Manuscriptum, Orizont, Progresele stiintei, Ramuri, Realitatea evreiasca, Revista 22, Romania libera, Romania literara, Romanian Review, Secolul 20 / 21, Steaua, Stiinta si tehnica, Tomis, Tribuna, Tribuna invatamantului, Tribuna Romaniei, Vatra, Viata romaneasca, Viata studenteasca etc.

Actualizat: 13 august 2007

2002 - 2015 -- Facultatea de Matematica si Informatica, Universitatea din Bucuresti
Str. Academiei nr. 14, sector 1, C.P. 010014, Bucuresti, Romania
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